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The magical dance of "Subject III" caused a heated discussion. Many people were jumping, and the doctor reminded them: be careful of spraining your ankle.

  The magical dance of "Subject III" caused a heated discussion. Many people were jumping, and the doctor reminded them: be careful of spraining your ankle.

  □ Jinling Evening News/Purple Mountain News reporter Wang Guojun

  "Subject three, at first I thought we were talking about the topic of driving test. Later, when my little brother came on stage, I found out that it was a magical dance." Guo Shilan, a citizen, was a little surprised. "This dance called’ Subject Three’ is really too hot."

  The dance of "Subject III" suddenly burst into flames in the streets, and many people in Nanjing also learned to dance "Subject III". Why did the dance of "Subject III" suddenly explode? What should we pay attention to when jumping "subject three"? The reporter conducted an interview a few days ago.

  Many people in Nanjing jumped up to "subject three"

  On November 28th, Guo Shilan ate in a restaurant in Qinhuai District. Shortly after sitting down, she heard a cheerful scream "Want to see, want to see" not far away. She turned her head and found that a customer had a birthday at a table not far away, wishing to see "Subject 3", and loudly solicited the opinions of consumers in nearby seats. Everyone said "Want to see".

  Soon, the younger brother, a waiter in the restaurant, danced the "subject three" dance in public, waving his hands and playing happy music in small steps. In a blink of an eye, men, women and children took out their mobile phones to take pictures. "The young man said that he had just learned and was not particularly familiar with it, but he danced very seriously and was very happy." Ms. Guo thinks it’s interesting to watch such a dance while eating hot pot.

  According to reports, "Subject III", as the full name of dance, is called "Guangxi Subject III", which originated from the scene of many people singing and dancing at a wedding scene in Guangxi. Since then, it has begun to spread among the people. "Guangxi people will experience three exams in their lives. The subject is singing folk songs, the subject is rice noodles, and the subject is dancing." It is the hot pot restaurant that really brings the fire dance. It is reported that a waiter in a hot pot restaurant in Shandong accidentally tried to dance this dance, which set off a craze for the hot pot restaurant to dance "subject three". In a famous brand hot pot store, as long as you say "I want to see subject three", a waiter will give you a magical "subject three" dance.

  As a dance, "Subject 3" has been popular all over the streets recently, and even related topics have been searched many times. On the social platform, some people have gained 200,000 yuan for jumping this two days, and "Subject III" has also traveled all the way across the ocean and spread overseas. In Nanjing, there are also many people who learn to jump up to subject three.

  Wang Haidong, a native of Nanjing, once performed on CCTV, is the local break dance king in Gaochun and the head of the dance champion street dance club. He has been busy these days. "Many students and parents told me to learn the dance of’ subject three’, which has been popular recently." He told reporters that from his point of view, this dance has a variety of jumping methods, which are easy and lively, easy to learn for people with a little dance foundation, and easy to learn even without dance foundation. "Because many people want to learn, after this dance became a hit, I learned it and then taught everyone to jump." Wang Haidong said.

  On the social platform, from the pictures and videos uploaded by netizens, there are "Subject III" dance performances in many hot pot restaurants and commercial districts in Nanjing, and many people are learning to dance "Subject III".

  Warm up before jumping and pay attention to sports safety.

  However, while "Subject III" became popular, there were also many voices of spit. A mother in Hangzhou took her baby to dinner, and it was uncomfortable to see the waiter jump "subject three". It was really uncomfortable to take the child to see the waiter wriggle around.

  Shake your hands, twist your waist, swing your hips, and have half-twisted feet, with the music with distinct rhythm … Some people feel very happy and have a sense of atmosphere, while others feel "spicy eyes", "too vulgar" and "very rustic". Experts believe that although it looks "earthy", the popularity of "subject three" reflects the rise of Internet consumer culture. "Earthy taste" has become a traffic password and has been recognized by young people. Offline, it has indeed improved the consumption atmosphere of hot pot restaurants, bringing a unique experience of consumption, but it also brings confusion to other consumers.

  In any case, the explosion of "subject three" has its objective demand, but dancing this dance may also bring some sports safety hazards because of its large body swing. Recently, a post-00 boy from Zhejiang went to the hospital because of unbearable knee pain after jumping "Subject III", and found that the tibial plateau bone contusion. The doctor reminded that the dance requires higher knee and ankle joints, and the movements are difficult. In severe cases, fractures may occur. Therefore, warm up before exercise. Once you sprain your ankle while dancing, stop dancing immediately. If your ankle is swollen badly, you should seek medical advice in time.


Game addiction is a disease? The standard of diagnosis is actually quite "strict"

  Game addiction is a disease? Recently, a news from the World Health Assembly has sparked heated public opinion.

  At the 72nd World Health Assembly held in Geneva, Switzerland not long ago, the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) was adopted. Among them, "game disorder", as a disease, is included in the classification of "disorder caused by addictive behavior".

  Equating game barriers and game addiction with diseases has caused controversy all over the world. There are some supporters waving flags and shouting, and the opponents with clear-cut flags are equally huge. Why do game obstacles become diseases? How to treat it? Discussions around these topics are still going on.

  Not even playing for a few days is sick.

  To what extent do you become addicted to games? The standard of diagnosis is actually quite "strict".

  In ICD-11, the identification of "game obstacles" mainly includes three behavior modes: the control over game behavior is weakened; The priority of playing games is higher than daily life and other normal hobbies; Despite the negative consequences, continuing to play games has caused serious damage to individuals, families, society, education, work or other important fields. In addition, the above behavior patterns need to last for at least 12 months before they can be used as a basis for diagnosis.

  "Because the game has affected daily life and lasted for more than one year, only in this way can it belong to ‘ Sick ’ 。” In this regard, Hao Wei, one of the drafters of ICD-11 "Game Obstacles" and the deputy director of the Institute of Mental Health of the Second Xiangya Hospital in China, said that the so-called "Game Obstacles" are not even sick after playing games for several days in a row, but have a detailed diagnostic standard.

  This means that either playing games is a "game obstacle". Who has previously issued a document saying that research shows that only a small number of people who participate in digital or video game activities are affected by game obstacles. Dr Vladimir Pozdnyak, Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse of WHO, also said, "Most people who play video games will not be affected by this obstacle, just as most people who drink alcohol will not be affected by ‘ Alcohol use disorder ’ Influence, but excessive use in certain circumstances will lead to adverse effects. "

  Nevertheless, why has the game alone become the target of public criticism? Behind the "game obstacle" is actually a response to people’s health concerns caused by electronic devices.

  WHO pointed out that the inclusion of "game barriers" in mental and behavioral disorders is aimed at solving a series of concerns about the impact of excessive use of electronic devices on public health. However, in the process of evaluating the existing evidence and research, the participating experts did not find enough evidence to include any technology-driven behavioral addiction such as "smartphone addiction".

  Comparatively speaking, the scientific research results of "game obstacles" are more abundant. Hao Wei said that medical research has found that game addiction has "withdrawal symptoms" similar to chemical addiction. For example, the brain images of some people who are addicted to games are similar to those who are addicted to chemical substances.

  Give priority to with psychotherapy.

  Since "game obstacle" is a disease, how should it be treated?

  Previously, there have been some treatment institutions for "internet addiction teenagers" in many places, and they have adopted extreme methods such as corporal punishment and electric shock to "treat", which has caused great controversy. Experts said that although WHO did not provide specific treatment guidance for "game barriers", for medical institutions, this move made relevant diagnosis and treatment well-founded. Health professionals can pay more attention to this obstacle and promote more research on the prevention and treatment of game obstacles.

  It is reported that in Beijing, Guangzhou and other places, some professional hospitals have carried out treatment and research on game obstacles.

  A few days ago, Beijing huilongguan hospital Behavioral Addiction Ward was officially opened, which is the first behavioral addiction treatment ward opened by public mental health medical institutions in China, and mainly treats patients with behavioral addiction such as game disorder and gambling disorder.

  Yang Kebing, deputy director of the hospital, said that the current treatment cycle of game addiction is 6 weeks — 8 weeks, divided into two stages. The treatment method is mainly psychotherapy, and there are 10 cognitive behavioral therapy modules, including interpersonal relationship management, family therapy, self-emotional management and so on. The first 4 weeks — In 6 weeks, patients should completely abstain from internet and mobile phones. During this period, the hospital will carry out outward bound training, and replace the game in various ways. For the next two weeks, patients were taught to use the internet healthily by limiting the use time.

  At present, the addiction ward is an open ward, which is equipped with a single bed, a writing desk, a sofa and green plants, and family members can also accompany the treatment. In the group therapy room, a mini KTV has been specially set up to help patients have fun outside the game.

  "If the patient seriously affects social interaction because of the game, he should go to the hospital for evaluation in time." Yang Fude, president of Beijing huilongguan hospital, said that the addiction ward can ensure the continuity of treatment, patients can easily build up the trust between doctors and patients with the help of fixed medical staff, and continuous evaluation can better follow up patients’ illness. At the same time, the hospital can provide more comprehensive treatment methods, which will help solve the problem with serious symptoms.

  Advocate healthy ways of playing games.

  Although it has been officially included in ICD-11, the "quarrel" around game addiction continues.

  Just after the adoption of the resolution, game organizations from Europe, North America and Australia, South Korea, South Africa, Brazil and other countries and regions jointly issued a statement, hoping that WHO could re-examine the resolution. The statement said: "‘ Game obstacle ’ It is not based on strong enough evidence, and it is not enough to be included in the most important standard of ICD. "

  Many practitioners in the game industry said that the key to game obstacles lies in "obstacles" rather than "games", so the positive role of games and the development achievements of the game industry should not be denied. At the same time, game companies should strengthen and improve the anti-addiction system of games, avoid teenagers’ excessive games, and create a healthy development space for the game industry.

  Some medical staff said that game obstacles are classified as mental illness, not to oppose games, but to oppose games that are harmful to physical and mental health. Medical institutions should help patients with game disorders get rid of out-of-control game behavior, establish a correct game use model, and regain sound social functions.

  "The key factor of game addiction is family education." A parent who once sent his children to an internet addiction rehabilitation institution said that the family should give their children enough love and attention, accompany them to grow up, guide them to play rationally, and help them enhance their ability to resist setbacks in the process of growing up.


The story behind the night economy: the invisible waiting of "sleepless people"

The maintenance workers of Metro Line 2 are repairing the side of the subway.

In the early morning, the last bus of Metro Line 2 is returning to the warehouse.

The maintenance workers of Metro Line 2 are inspecting the bottom of the car in the tunnel.

The maintenance workers of Metro Line 2 are using electronic equipment to repair the subway that has just returned to the warehouse.

In the early morning, the driver of Metro Line 2 was at work. The pictures in this group were all taken by China Youth Daily and China Youth Network trainee reporter Li Ruoyi/photo.

  At 1:23 am, the last bus in beijing subway line 2 just finished its last "throughput". Starting from 5:10 the day before, Metro Line 2 has picked up 994,500 people. After leaving the last night, the last bus is preparing to go back to the library for a "rest". At this time, the subway repairman is "physically examining" the subway cars to ensure that they can be successfully connected to the first wave of "morning walkers" at 5:10 after more than three hours.

  Night economy has become a new growth point of urban consumption, and major cities have been digging for night economy, and Beijing is one of them. According to the Research Report on the Development Trend and Consumption Behavior of Night Economy Industry in China from 2019 to 2022 released by Ai Media Consulting, the development scale of night economy in China will show explosive growth, and it will exceed 30 trillion yuan in 2020.

  Night economy includes clothing, food, housing, transportation, travel, entertainment and many other aspects, and traffic is more to escort night travel. On July 19, in order to meet the travel needs of night returnees, Beijing Metro Lines 1 and 2 extended their operating hours every Friday and Saturday; At the same time, there are night buses, night taxis, online car rides, driving and other travel tools to escort night returnees.

  Take the first subway home.

  The end of ordinary people’s work is the beginning of a "sleepless" day. After the extended operation, the last train of Metro Line 2 entered the station from 23:48 to 1:23 the next morning, and a total of 18 subways were opened, with an average of one for each night shift driver. At the same time, the working hours of subway stations, power supply, maintenance and other departments have been extended accordingly.

  Zhang Qingsheng, a driver who has been driving for more than 20 years, drove the extended last bus. I got off work at 1:23 in the morning and went back to the dormitory to wash. It was already 2: 00 in the morning, and I had to get up at 6: 00. You need to drive 7 ~ 8 laps a day, and the duration of a lap is 45 minutes. "Because Line 2 is a ring road, sometimes it is too tired. After driving for more than 20 kilometers, there is an illusion of spinning in the same place."

  Wang Jinghui, director of the Taiping Lake Maintenance Center, and his team members have just begun to drive the last subway back to the library in Zhang Qingsheng. They have to overhaul more than 40 groups of cars every day, and a group of cars has to inspect 1,000 ~ 2,000 points, including the overhaul of electrical appliances, the replacement of wearing parts, sanitary cleaning, etc. It takes about 20 ~ 30 minutes for a car, and there are 7-8 people in the overhaul group. It usually takes more than 2 o’clock to finish the overhaul, and it takes about 3 o’clock after the extension. After about an hour’s rest, it is time to get up and send the car out of the library.

  "In July and August, you can feel the pain of your brothers." Generally, it is necessary to repair the underbody and wings of the vehicle. Among them, the underbody needs to be squatted in the pit for inspection, and there is no way to straighten up. In summer, the temperature of the pit is over 40 degrees, and the bottom of a car needs to be overhauled for about 15 minutes. The clothes are like washed clothes. "The clothes are not washed, but retted."

  It is a habit that Wang Jinghui and his team have always formed that they don’t go anywhere and come to work after taking a nap on every day when they need to work at night. The night shift is from 17: 30 to 8: 30. Among them, two or three o’clock in the morning is the most sleepy time. Some people choose to come over for a midnight snack, some people get up and have a cup of tea, and some people go to the door to cool down.

  In some places and times that public transportation can’t reach, driving and other modes of travel have become the choice of those who return home at night. According to the "2018 Entertainment Index Report" released by the National Big Data Research Center for e-driving in January this year, in 2018, the number of driving services nationwide reached 267 million, and first-tier cities such as Beishangguangshen and Shenzhen were the cities that used driving services the most.

  In the past year, Fu Cheng from Henan was one of the providers of hundreds of millions of driving services. This year, it is the 20th year of his drifting to the North. A few years ago, he was still doing car sales and started to work as a part-time driver. He was just laid off years ago, and driving has gradually become the main business. At 7 o’clock every night, he will go out on a folding bicycle weighing 19 kilograms and start taking orders. He usually closes at two or three in the morning and sleeps until noon after returning home.

  "The nightlife in Beijing is rich, and the demand for driving is even greater." Now, you can earn 5,000 ~ 6,000 yuan a month. If you work full-time as a driver, you can earn more than 10,000 yuan a month. Because of the low input cost, more and more people are beginning to enter this industry, especially some online car drivers are beginning to switch to driving. In the past, drivers used to go back after midnight and didn’t want to stay outside. Now, until 6 o’clock in the morning, there are still many lists on the other side of the work, and some full-time drivers will take the first subway to get home.

  Low-headed people and drunkards

  Everyone who works at night has a story more or less. They deal with all kinds of people and see all kinds of life.

  At night, passengers usually gather at a fixed time or a fixed station to get on and off. Wang Yueqian, deputy director of the crew center of Line 2, said that there are sports events or performances in the workers’ stadium. When the event is over, fans or fans flock in and fill the whole platform. At this time, vehicles will be added to allow passengers to get on the bus quickly. On weekdays, after 11 o’clock at night, there are actually no people on the subway.

  Interestingly, you can use the bus card to predict the wage income level of a region. Wang Yueqian pointed out that because Fuxingmen subway station is close to Financial Street, many passengers’ bus cards cost several thousand yuan at a time, and the wages of office workers who get off at this station are not low.

  The "low-headed family" has become a major landscape of the platform. Zhang Yaxin, a post-90s subway driver, said that it was very eye-catching because he had to stare at monitors and screen doors all the time. He found that at night, there were many young people on the platform, most of them were playing with their mobile phones, and occasionally some people were chatting. After zero, people in Chongwenmen and Chaoyangmen are relatively concentrated, among them, most of them are after 90 s and 00 s. Shao Nan, a driver who joined Zhang Yaxin in the same year, also observed that there were some people who just got off work in the subway at night, and they looked a little tired and lazy.

  Different from the scenery seen by subway drivers, people who deal with drivers on behalf of drivers are all people in the wine bureau, especially those who are drunk.

  Fu Cheng observed that most of the guests from 8: 00 pm to 10: 00 pm originated from large restaurants or time-honored restaurants; From 10 pm to 2 am, most customers come from KTV, pedicure shops and so on.

  On one occasion, he took an order at 9: 00 pm. When he first got on the bus, two men were chatting all the time. After one of them got off the bus, the other fell asleep, so he couldn’t wake up. He could only drive to a monitored place and wait, but he didn’t dare to rest. He just sat in the car for a while and then stood on the ground for a while. Seven hours later, the man’s wife finally called and took the man home.

  As a network car driver, Shanghai from Liaoning will meet all kinds of people when driving at night. He often pulls people into nightclubs. In his opinion, there are two kinds of people in nightclubs, one is particularly happy, and the other is particularly unhappy. Most people come to get drunk, some people fall down when they get on the bus, some people talk nonsense, and some people hand him a cigarette when they come up. "Come, master, smoke a cigarette with your buddy."

  For Shanghai, it is the basic accomplishment of drivers to stop at a suitable place and let drunken people vomit. But some guests will throw up in the car and blame the driver for driving unsteadily; However, once he was deeply impressed by an understanding experience. A drunken guest stopped him several times. When he got off the bus, the guest was very embarrassed and gave him a 200 yuan tip. He couldn’t accept the money, but he felt very warm in his heart.

  Nightlife is the epitome of urban development.

  People who return home at night light up the "night capital", and behind it is the invisible waiting of "sleepless people". Working at night has its particularity, because it is often upside down day and night, and it will encounter many "bad worries" and leave some sequelae.

  "This is an industry that looks at luck." Fu Cheng said that when you are lucky, it is easy to earn a few hundred yuan a day, but if you are not, you may lose money. Once, at 7 o’clock in the evening, he received an order to go to a ravine in Fangshan, Beijing. The driving fee was 127 yuan, after deducting 20% management fee, 90 yuan was left. I took a bus to Liangxiang and spent 70 yuan. It took 20 yuan to carpool from Liangxiang to Liuliqiao. It was already 2 am when I got home by bus. "Even if I lose money, the key is that I can hardly come back."

  "The mentality determines the state of a person’s work." Fu Cheng said that the system occasionally randomly distributed some "partial orders", but it also taught him to "hitchhike". On average, one month, he will receive a ticket to Langfang, Hebei Province, and he can earn about 100 yuan on one trip. Whether it’s a private car or a taxi, he waved and stopped, asking the driver to do it conveniently and take it to a place as close as possible to Beijing. In addition, a customer once asked him to send the car to be repaired. On the expressway, the windshield in front of the car suddenly lifted and was completely broken, and finally the customer lost 1300 yuan.

  Fu Cheng is also changing from a "white" driver to an "old slick" in the industry. When a passenger asks him to "stand by for a long time", he will report to the platform first, then call the police and contact the passenger’s family by registering his mobile phone number. Fu Cheng likes the present situation very much, enjoys the freedom of driving, and occasionally goes out to do odd jobs, earning hundreds of dollars a day.

  Because the day shift and night shift are upside down, I often can’t sleep. Wang Jinghui thought of many ways. At first, she read novels, and then she watched the news. It was not really sleepy, but her eyes were too tired to support. Recently, he began to listen to e-books again, and sometimes he woke up and had already played dozens of chapters.

  In Wang Jinghui’s office, there is always a sphygmomanometer. Almost everyone in the team has high blood pressure, which is a "sequela" left by staying up late. In addition, because the maintenance always keeps an action, there are more or less problems in the shoulders, neck and waist of each maintenance staff. When resting, in order to treat lumbar disc herniation, Wang Jinghui will do a massage once a week on average.

  "Compared with when I first started working, the night in Beijing is brighter." Wang Jinghui said that there are more consumers coming out at night. After the extension of the subway, it not only broke the original operation mode of him and his team, but also worked overtime. "As a public service organization, we are duty-bound."

  "From the changes in the subway, we can see the epitome of a city’s development." Wang Yueqian worked in the subway industry in 1986. He remembers that the earliest last bus of the Beijing subway was collected at 9: 00 p.m. At that time, the entertainment activities at night were not very rich, so he went off work with his colleague Kan Kan Dashan. Or at night, neighbors gather in a yard to show movies together. Later, the subway changed to collect cars at eleven o’clock in the evening. Up to now, the flight attendants went to bed after one o’clock in the morning.

  With the increasing demand for people’s consumption at night, the operation hours of shopping malls may be extended in the future, and the supporting traffic may also be extended. At the same time, the driving mode of the subway may also change, from the current automatic driving to unmanned driving. "We are also trying to adapt."

  China Youth Daily China Youth Network Trainee reporter Zhao Limei Li Ruoyi


What did the 20-year war leave for Afghanistan?

  【 honk 】

  In 2021, it is the 20th anniversary of the "9.11" incident that shocked the world, and it is also the 20th anniversary of the Afghan war launched by the United States. As the longest war in American history, it made the United States pay a heavy material price and casualties, and finally forced the United States to start withdrawing troops from Afghanistan. On April 14, 2021, the Biden administration of the United States announced that it would withdraw all US troops stationed in Afghanistan by September 11. However, 20 years later, what has this war left for Afghanistan?

  Turbulent, divided and impoverished Afghanistan

  After the "9.11" incident, the United States quickly launched the war in Afghanistan, overthrew the Taliban regime and drove away Al Qaeda. In the following 20 years, the United States continued the war on terrorism in Afghanistan, promoted post-war reconstruction and carried out so-called democratic transformation. As a result, Afghanistan has established a so-called Western-style democratic republic, achieved low-speed economic growth, and established a national security force.

  However, 20 years later, Afghanistan is still a conflict and turbulent country. A strategic goal of the United States in launching the war in Afghanistan is to make Afghanistan no longer a breeding ground for terrorism, but this goal has not been achieved. Because although the Taliban has been overthrown as a regime, it has been reorganized since 2003. So far, it has developed into an anti-American and anti-government political and military organization with more than 80,000 members. In addition to the Taliban, various extremist organizations such as Al Qaeda and the Khorasan branch of the Islamic State are also very active in Afghanistan. According to the annual Global global peace index released in June 2019, Afghanistan has replaced Syria as the most insecure country in the world. In the past 20 years, the conflict has brought a serious humanitarian disaster to Afghanistan. As of 2019, more than 40,000 civilians have died in Afghanistan, more than 60,000 people have been injured, and about 11 million people have become refugees.

  Afghanistan remains a de facto divided country. The United States and the Afghan government it supports cannot effectively govern the whole country, and mainly control the central and western regions and the northern regions, as well as large and medium-sized cities and transportation trunk lines throughout the country. The Afghan government is also inseparable from the military protection of the United States and its western allies. In addition, it also faces difficulties such as low governance efficiency and rampant corruption. On the other hand, the Taliban has controlled many areas such as southeastern and southern Afghanistan, and implemented effective management in a solid jurisdiction. For example, the implementation of Islamic law, providing protection to local people and helping to resolve civil or commercial disputes, actually forms a political separation trend with the Afghan government.

  Afghanistan is also one of the least developed countries in the world. The industrial and agricultural foundation is weak, food is not self-sufficient, the economy is heavily dependent on foreign aid, finance is not self-reliant, and people’s lives are hard. 2019— In fiscal year 2020, Afghanistan’s GDP was about 18.89 billion US dollars, and its per capita GDP was only 586.6 US dollars. Although Afghanistan’s fiscal revenue has increased year by year, it has been unable to make ends meet for many years, and 60% of its budget comes from international aid. The unemployment rate has been rising for many years, reaching 40% in 2019. Some laborers can only earn about $60 a month, making it difficult to support their families.

  American factors that can not be ignored

  The war on terrorism and the failure of reconstruction in Afghanistan are the result of various factors. However, as a promoter and leader, the American factor cannot be ignored. The reason is:

  First, after the end of the Cold War, the United States became the only superpower in the world, and hegemonism and militarism expanded, which led to the "anti-terrorism" front being stretched too long. The war in Afghanistan is the first war fought by the United States since the 21st century. In just over two months, it overthrew the Taliban regime and drove away Al Qaeda. In 2003, the aspiring United States launched the second war, the Iraq war, which quickly overthrew Saddam Hussein’s regime and then began the so-called democratic transformation in Iraq. If the United States attacked Afghanistan, it won the sympathy of the international community, but its attack on Iraq was completely unilateral and did not get the authorization of the United Nations. At the same time, the United States carried out the "anti-terrorism" war and the so-called democratic transformation in two countries, which led to the long front and the shift of strategic center, greatly underestimating the determination and strength of the Taliban to make a comeback. It was after the Iraq war in 2003 that the Taliban began to recruit and organize a large number of new forces and rebuild their intelligence and action networks, thus achieving strategic reorganization.

  Second, in the past 20 years, American troops stationed in Afghanistan have frequently killed and killed innocent civilians, ignored local religious and cultural customs, and the incidents of humiliating corpses and abusing prisoners have been constantly exposed, which has aroused the anti-American sentiment of the Afghan people and prompted more people to join the anti-American anti-government team. For example, from January to April 2012, incidents in which American soldiers insulted the bodies of anti-American militants in Afghanistan were exposed one after another. In February, soldiers stationed in the US military base in Afghanistan burned a large number of religious books including the Koran. In March, an American soldier shot and killed 16 innocent Afghan civilians. This series of incidents has triggered large-scale anti-American protests in Afghanistan and neighboring countries, and the Taliban also took the opportunity to strengthen retaliatory attacks on US troops stationed in Afghanistan. Over the past 20 years, the American media have repeatedly disclosed various incidents of prisoner abuse by the US military and intelligence departments. In 2017, a prosecutor of the International Criminal Court decided to fully investigate possible war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by the United States.

  Third, the so-called western-style democracy may not be suitable for Afghanistan’s national conditions. Modern western democratic system can be generally established in European and American countries, which has gone through hundreds of years. During this period, it experienced the enlightenment of the Renaissance and the religious revolution, the direct promotion of the industrial revolution, and the repeated baptism of the bourgeois revolution. However, Afghanistan does not have the corresponding economic, class and ideological and cultural foundation. First of all, Afghanistan is one of the least developed countries in the world, with a low level of productivity. Secondly, since the 20th century, the capitalist economy has developed to a certain extent in Afghanistan, and a constitutional monarchy or a republican regime was established in the 1960s and 1970s. However, on the whole, the polarization between the rich and the poor in Afghanistan is wide, and about 40% of the population still lives below the poverty line. Thirdly, there are many tribes and ethnic groups in Afghanistan, and their identity is higher than that of the state, resulting in serious social and political polarization. Afghanistan is an Islamic country, and most people believe in Islam. It is difficult for many people, especially the middle and lower classes, to accept western democratic values. In such a country, Western-style democracy may aggravate the political and social division in Afghanistan, leading to national instability and ineffective governance.

  It can be seen that the war in Afghanistan, which lasted for nearly 20 years, left a turbulent, divided and poor Afghanistan, and the United States should deeply reflect on its wrong policies.

  (Author: Wang Feng, Unit: China Institute of African Studies, China Academy of Social Sciences)