标签归档 苏州夜网论坛

通过admin

The new BYD Han DM-I/Han DM-p was launched on April 10th.

  [car home Information] Recently, we learned from relevant channels that the new BYD Han DM-i/DM-p will be listed on April 10th, and the previously announced pre-sale price range was 216,800-322,800 yuan, including 216,800-292,800 yuan for Han DM-i and 322,800 yuan for Han DM-p. The new model will be upgraded in appearance, interior and configuration.

Byd Han 2022 DM-i 121KM exclusive type

  In terms of appearance, the new Han DM-i has been upgraded in a small range on the basis of the current model. The new car continues to use the front face of the "Dragon Face" family, and the size of the front grille is further increased to look fuller. The air intakes on both sides have also become more rounded, and the sharp shape is more in line with visual aesthetics.

Byd Han 2022 DM-i 121KM exclusive type

  At the rear of the vehicle, the penetrating headlights of the new Han DM-i are more advanced. After removing the chrome decoration, the overall sense of the headlights is stronger. The design of the Chinese knot in the headlights once again shows China elements, and the air diffuser shape of the rear lip echoes the front face, which increases the vehicle’s sportiness.

Byd Han 2022 DM-i 121KM exclusive type

Byd Han 2022 DM-i 121KM exclusive type

Byd Han 2022 DM-i 121KM exclusive type

Byd Han 2022 DM-i 121KM exclusive type

Byd Han 2022 DM-i 121KM exclusive type

  In terms of interior, the new Han DM-i basically continues the interior design of the current model, but the overall color matching looks more elegant, especially the brand-new operation interface, and the color matching is obviously higher, which is reflected in the full LCD instrument panel and the central control panel. DiLink 4.0(5G) intelligent networking system is equipped with a new combination instrument, which can display not only 3D ADAS information but also navigation information on the instrument, in addition to the configuration of NFC car keys and smart housekeeper for cloud services.

Byd Han 2022 DM-i 121KM exclusive type

Byd Han 2022 DM-i 121KM exclusive type

  In terms of power, the new car comes standard with a blade battery and a plug-in hybrid system based on a 1.5T engine. Under the energy-saving Han DM-i NEDC working condition, the pure battery life is 242km, the fuel consumption per 100km is as low as 4.2L, and the comprehensive battery life can reach 1,300km. Han DM-p, which is the main performance, only needs 3.7 seconds to accelerate at zero speed, 202km of pure battery life under NEDC working condition, and 5.2L of fuel consumption per 100 kilometers. (Text/car home Qin Chao) 

通过admin

Can selling scripts live become a "life-saving straw" for screenwriters?

  This article contributes to the author, which is the author’s personal opinion, and the opinion does not represent the position of poisonous eyes.

  Wen | Pu Juan

  In recent months, the wave of goods carried by the whole people has risen.

  First, Luo Yonghao settled in Tik Tok with high profile, and held several live broadcasts to sell goods and pay off debts. Later, Liu Shishi, Yang Yang, Victoria Song and other stars appeared in the live broadcast room to recommend products to fans together with well-known online celebrity such as Li Jiaqi. Later, even CCTV celebrities Zhu Guangquan and Ouyang Xiadan and Gree Chairman Dong Mingzhu also joined the wave.

  In the last month or two, the fire of live broadcast with goods has finally "burned" into the film and television circle, and screenwriters have joined the ranks, but the goods they bring are not lipsticks and food, but scripts.

  In April, the Writers’ Gang held three online "live selling scripts" activities, and organized 15 writers to bring goods online, including Yu Geng, the original author of the recent hot film "I am Yu Huanshui", and Run Nian Dong, the screenwriter of "My heart is blooming" and "Crazy Alien". People who usually bury themselves in writing suddenly turned into anchors with goods, which attracted the attention of many people in the industry and people who eat melons. The number of views of the third phase of the event accumulated about 13,000 times.

  As of May 2, four "live screenplay selling" activities have been held.

  (Screenshot from the screenwriter to help Weibo)

  Selling scripts live is essentially an online venture capital meeting. Each screenwriter first conducts a 10-minute roadshow to explain his creative experience and script outline to the audience. Then there is a 5-minute interactive question-and-answer session, in which the audience directly asks questions and the screenwriter personally answers them. Although it is somewhat different from the common live broadcast, the audience can also reward the screenwriter or brush comments according to their own preferences, and the producer can also contact the screenwriter to learn more about the script by rewarding 168 yuan.

  The writers’ gang publicized the first phase of the event as "The World’s First Live Screenplay Selling Conference", which also attracted well-known screenwriter Song Fangjin and others to open the platform in Weibo. However, from the feedback of the third phase of the event, it seems that writers, producers and other people in the industry did not fully buy it, and the comment area was polarized.

  Song Fangjin sells scripts for live broadcast in Weibo.

  In the author’s opinion, the reason why the live broadcast of scripts will encounter unsatisfactory feedback is that on the one hand, it has just begun to try, and all aspects still need to be improved and improved; On the other hand, it has something to do with China’s "awkward" position in the industry.

  Why is there a live broadcast selling scripts?

  On the surface, the appearance of selling scripts live is because many aspects of the film and television industry have come to a standstill under the epidemic, so film and television people take this opportunity to launch a self-help. But in fact, apart from self-help, the writer’s weak right to speak in China and the lack of appropriate channels for safeguarding rights and assistance are very important internal causes.

  The film and television industry is a huge social system engineering, which is not only a long industrial chain, but also a "cosmic planet"-like existence, radiating and blending with many related industries. From the perspective of modern enterprise operation, production, distribution and projection in the film and television industry chain correspond to the production, promotion and sales of goods respectively.

  Nowadays, the United States, South Korea, Japan and other major film and television countries have formed a mature industrial value chain of "upstream development, midstream expansion and downstream extension". The production, distribution, marketing and screening of film and television works are closely linked, while the film and television industry chain in China is still in the process of gradual improvement.

  The script development link is a relatively immature one. Script is the starting point and the core soul of a film and television work. As the creator of this soul, the importance of screenwriter is beyond doubt. But compared with other countries, China’s screenwriters are marginalized.

  According to "Hollywood 2017 Salary Report", the top film writers in the United States can earn $3 million to $5 million, while gold-medal TV writers often have the opportunity to enjoy the same treatment as executive producers. Ordinary film writers can also get about $500,000, and TV writers can earn $5,000 to $10,000 for a single episode. At the same time, there is also a Writers Guild ofAmerica in the United States, which has the right to speak in the industry, helping writers to protect their rights and providing notarization of their works and some legal basis.

  In South Korea, top screenwriters can get 100 million won for a single episode, and ordinary signed screenwriters are worth 20 million won, which is basically the same as that of big-name stars. Excellent screenwriters are not only well paid, but also have a high status. Directors can’t modify their scripts without authorization. It is also disrespectful for actors to modify their lines. Even TV stations will make decisions according to their status as screenwriters.

  In contrast, China screenwriters seem to have "long lost their names" in the industry.

  According to an industry insider, there are generally about one million top film writers, and it is not bad for newcomers to reach 150,000. The number of online screenwriters is about 100,000-100,000, and the number of TV dramas is 10,000-30,000. Only the top big coffee can reach 6 digits, and the number of online drama writers will be lower. In theory, scriptwriting is the freest, but in fact, I write scripts almost all the time, and I feel guilty even when I go out for dinner.

  Wang Hailin, a well-known screenwriter, once mentioned: "Basically, children from the planning department come to you, and then put out a bunch of data to tell you that the market needs this and that, and even teach you which are popular writing methods." He also pointed out that the excessive voice of capital and stars makes the screenwriter’s control over the script weaker and weaker.

  In addition, screenwriters also face difficulties such as weakening the right of signature, being paid in arrears, the script being stolen, and the difficulty in safeguarding rights. The Report on the Ecological Investigation of Young Screenwriters in China Film and Television Industry from 2019 to 2020 shows that 75% of the interviewed screenwriters have been cheated. However, due to the overlord clause, weak power and other reasons, even with the protection of relevant laws and associations, screenwriters can not safeguard the most basic rights of works.

  Source "2019-2020 Ecological Investigation Report on Young Screenwriters in China Film and Television Industry"

  In the already weak situation, this year’s epidemic situation can be described as making the screenwriter industry worse. At this stage, the film and television industry is in a state of suspension, and many companies have closed down or laid off a large number of employees. Although screenwriters are relatively safe jobs, many people have said that their income will be greatly reduced this year due to the collateral effect. For screenwriters, especially newcomers with meager income, it will undoubtedly bring many uncertainties to their future development.

  Being in trouble and encountering a black swan, the live broadcast of the script seems to be an attempt by the screenwriter to save himself. Du Hongjun, the founder of the writers’ guild and deputy secretary-general of the China Film Literature Society, said that he hoped to help writers build a good stage for script trading in the form of live broadcast, and then he would help outstanding writers to promote projects and provide legal aid for writers’ rights and interests.

  High opening and low walking, live broadcast with goods unacceptable?

  Since entering Tik Tok to live broadcast and bring goods, Luo Yonghao has not only satisfied the curiosity of all spectators, but also made all brand sellers addicted to the focus of the crowd. Let’s not comment on the rate of goods, but people really brushed up a wave of popularity. It is understood that after seeing Luo Yonghao’s debut show with goods, the screenwriter Run Nian Dong felt in the circle of friends that he also wanted to sell the script live, which was recognized by many well-known screenwriters.

  In April, the live broadcast of the script really came. In the film and television industry, stars, producers, directors and so on often do roadshows to publicize the films that have been completed in the later stage, and never involve the original script. The venture capital clubs specially for screenwriters are generally offline salons or small forums, and there are few online activities.

  Under the epidemic, many new formats have been born, and selling scripts live is one of them.

  Many screenwriters, producers and people in the industry are curious about the "World’s First Live Screenplay Selling Conference", and some of them are melon-eating people attracted by the "live screenplay with goods". Therefore, on April 3, the first activity of the screenwriter gang won more than 7,000 views. Du Hongjun revealed that most of the audience are insiders, many well-known screenwriters and production companies are among them, and some people also participated in the discussion.

  Screenshot from CCTV6 program China movie report

  During the live broadcast, the writers "do as the Romans do", like online celebrity, came to the screen, used different narrative methods, roadshowed their scripts in turn, and answered questions from the audience. It can be seen that these "literary veterans" are still novices when they become online celebrity. The face is simple, there is no filter, and the speech is still one-sided. However, it is this contrast that has aroused the curiosity of the outside world, and the comment area is very lively.

  These screenwriters have different backgrounds and different working years. They come from professional classes, have changed careers, and have won film festival awards. The types of works they create are also different, involving suspense, science fiction, war and other themes. For such diversity, some producers affirmed: "If there is a lack of projects or screenwriters, I will come here to dig well, and it should be no problem for good screenwriters to reach cooperation."

  However, with the live broadcast, the doubts from the producers became more and more obvious.

  The first is the way to bring goods. Many people I have come into contact with don’t quite buy it: "The script is a matter that requires many parties to participate and communicate many times. It is very difficult to make a deal immediately after watching the live broadcast."

  It is reported that during the live broadcast, if the producer wants to know more about the script, he can be rewarded with 168 yuan, and the screenwriter will help to match and communicate with the screenwriter. If the two sides reach an agreement, the script can be traded. The writers’ gang should set up such delivery rules to shorten the length of the script supply chain and eliminate the risk of second-hand dealers. However, judging from the producer’s attitude, the writer’s road to realizing the goods may still have a long way to go.

  Users can further communicate by rewarding and unlocking (source "Screenwriters")

  The scriptwriter’s explanation is also the hardest hit by the producers. Some screenwriters only talk about the content of the script, so it is difficult for producers to raise interest and judge the quality. Some people jokingly call it "trying to sell but hiding". Some screenwriters have no primary and secondary explanations, which makes people unable to find bright spots. Other screenwriters are immature, perhaps out of self-protection, but basically no one wants to know more about them.

  Producers are more worried about too much creative disclosure. "Now people are too smart to read the whole script at all, just one core idea is enough." A senior person said that a good core idea has been borrowed, and after the film and television company buys this script, there may be risks in copyright and it will also affect the film release.

  Feedback from fellow screenwriters is also mixed. Some people are eager to try and comment on social platforms after watching the live broadcast, saying that this has opened a channel for mutual communication and is also a resource channel. Some people think that the platform needs to establish better processes and copyright protection mechanisms, and continue to wait and see. Some people are not optimistic about this model, and think that public shouting is beneath the dignity of cultural people.

  "Li Jiaqi sells lipsticks and Viya sells rockets, all of which are in kind, just like painters sell paintings and sculptors sell sculptures. Commodities are traceable, and it stimulates your desire for consumption. However, the script is a creative work, which will involve the way of copyright purchase and whether it will be revised subsequently, which is different from a one-time transaction of buying lipstick. " Screenwriter Chen Lu said more directly, "it is better to sell scripts live than to sell screenwriters live."

  In the hot discussion of the main trading objects, the popularity of selling live scripts declined. On the 14th, the second activity was only watched more than 2,000 times, and on the 25th, the third activity was only watched more than 4,000 times. The total cargo volume of the third phase of the event is still unclear, but after the second phase of the event, Du Hongjun mentioned that there are about 10 producers who want to know more about it.

  From much attention to the decline in heat, is it unacceptable for live broadcasts to go so high and low in the screenwriter circle? Not necessarily.

  A painted skin without drawing bones may turn into a paper tiger.

  The screenwriter brings the goods with him. The audience can enjoy 6.66 yuan if they like it, 2.22 yuan if they don’t like it, and 168 yuan if they want to place an order. On the surface, this is the standard of live broadcast, but strictly speaking, selling scripts live is not a real live broadcast.

  The definition of live broadcast with goods is to sell goods by live broadcast, activate and transform users. Under the catalysis of capital, Taobao, Aauto Quicker and Tik Tok have already developed rapidly, forming a "three-legged" pattern in the field of live broadcast. Each platform has a huge user base, a large number of online celebrity anchors, all kinds of commodities, and a perfect supply chain.

  At present, in the mature industrial chain of live broadcast, these factors are indispensable: platform, seller, MCN and user. In the live broadcast of selling scripts, the writers’ gang is the platform, the writers play the dual roles of sellers and online celebrity, and the users are the producers.

  The screenwriter helped the founder Du Hongjun respond to the transaction of the first live broadcast.

  First, from the platform point of view, compared with Taobao, Aauto Quicker, Tik Tok and other pan-entertainment live broadcast platforms, the writers’ gang is more vertical, focusing only on script products. The quality of users of the platform is high, but the volume can’t compete with the big platform at all, and there is no perfect drainage mechanism, so the live broadcast viewing volume is generally low.

  Let’s look at the screenwriter who integrates the seller and online celebrity. The screenwriter is a creative seller, and his written skills outweigh his oral skills, but he may not be able to sell, which is still difficult for some people to accept. "It is a kind of sorrow that the products of wisdom are going to be sold intelligently. The onlookers are just curious, which makes the sales more tragic."

  In this regard, a Buddhist screenwriter said: "The quality of the script is the most important thing. Now I am only worried about whether my writing is good or not, and I don’t care about anything else." However, some screenwriters want to try to sell their own scripts. Although they have not signed up for the event, they have already started to discuss the speech lines with their friends.

  Finally, watching the audience, the screenwriter has been in a weak position in the industrial chain for a long time, with less publicity, weak fan base and poor appeal for bringing goods. At the same time, the marketing skills are not as good as those of online celebrity who came out of the professional system. The live broadcast process is easy to make people bored and can’t afford to buy. As the leader of the upstream link of the industrial chain, producers can decide which screenwriter will write the script, how the screenwriter will write the script, and which director and star will shoot and star in the script, but the overall number is small. The users of the general live broadcast platform are the general public with a large base.

  Display in the live broadcast of selling scripts (new Jingwei in the source)

  Therefore, the live broadcast of scripts is a kind of deformation of live broadcast with goods. Du Hongjun proved this point in the opening remarks of the event: "I hope this attempt can give some inspiration to the industry, rather than simply live broadcast e-commerce replication."

  Based on the above reasons, it is reasonable that the popularity of "live selling scripts" is low, the transaction rate is low, and the scope of influence is limited. Du Hongjun also realized the shortcomings of the activities and accepted everyone’s opinions with an open mind. He said that in the future, the form will be improved, and roles such as "venture capital tutor" or "special observer" will be added to the live broadcast, so as to guide the screenwriter to write and tell good stories and be more capable of improving stories.

  Live broadcast with goods, a possible perfect self-help

  The emergence of venture capital tutors, special observers, screenwriters and script brokers has indeed filled the gap in the "MCN plate" of live broadcast selling scripts, shared the sales tasks before scriptwriting, and made live broadcast selling scripts closer to the mature live broadcast delivery mode. If these people are big coffee in the industry, they naturally have weight in the users, that is, the producers, but now most of the film and television industry advocates "capital success", and it is still a question mark whether they can successfully bring goods in the end; And if these people are stars, the platform may have to be prepared to spend money for a long time.

  A screenwriter mentioned that similar platforms have done similar things before, but it basically didn’t work, and finally it can only be abandoned. It can be seen that increasing the number of venture capital tutors and special observers may not necessarily solve the problem of selling scripts live.

  The writers in trouble seem to have reached a dead end again, so is selling scripts live the right solution for writers to save themselves?

  Anxiety of young screenwriters, source of "2019-2020 Ecological Investigation Report of Young Screenwriters in China Film and Television Industry"

  The author believes that the landing of live e-commerce in the film and television industry can break the boundaries of interpersonal relationships, so that new screenwriters can also be exposed to the same resources as mature screenwriters and get more opportunities. Therefore, even if the current experiment is more meaningful, selling scripts live can also be a self-help for writers. If possible, it is still a perfect self-help.

  With regard to improving the live broadcast of scripts, the author tries to find the answer from the live broadcast industry chain, not that this proven business system is a panacea, but that he wants to get some suitable and effective solutions from it.

  After analysis, the author thinks that there may be traces in the following four aspects-

  First, expand the influence of the platform.

  Under normal circumstances, producers will independently develop scripts, but sometimes they will "cast a wide net, collect more fish, and choose the best ones", such as searching for good projects at major film festivals, salvaging IP online to adapt them, holding some solicitation competitions, and obtaining scripts from similar platforms such as writers’ gangs.

  At present, there are some platforms in the industry that are similar to writers’ gangs, such as script supermarket and Yunlaiwu. Expanding the influence of the platform itself and establishing the credibility of the industry are the best ways to attract the attention of producers.

  In addition to providing high-quality script content, reasonable trading mechanism and good after-sales service, the platform can cooperate with authoritative people to discuss and effectively solve some industry problems. At the same time, follow the example of the live broadcast platform, establish a perfect drainage mechanism by using communities and new media, attract more film and television companies to pay attention, create an active communication atmosphere, and thus enhance the influence of the platform.

  Second, improve the strength of screenwriters.

  Live broadcast with goods can’t turn bad stories into good stories, so the strength of screenwriters is very important.

  For mature screenwriters, the platform can provide an attractive cooperation model, and the two sides will benefit each other for a long time; For potential screenwriters, the platform can provide systematic and comprehensive training courses, such as screenwriter colleges launched by some platforms, to help screenwriters grow and improve, and then feed back the platform. Like live delivery, a good content production relationship is the key for the platform to build a high-quality supply chain.

  Tuyuan vision china

  Third, improve the marketing level.

  Song Fangjin commented that selling scripts live is a new creative form in the new era: "scriptwriters are players and their values are visualized. Stories are luxury goods, and the highest price wins them. This is different from Luo Yonghao, Viya and Li Jiaqi. "

  As said, the script is a special creative product, which is different from the main categories of live broadcast goods such as cosmetics and clothing, so the marketing methods will be different. If the screenwriter’s self-marketing ability is insufficient, the platform can be recommended by the script or screenwriter agent, star, industry expert, well-known director and screenwriter.

  In Hollywood, screenwriters basically sell scripts through brokers. "It is difficult to cultivate excellent script brokers in the domestic environment." The writers’ gang once said. But it is hard not to mean impossible, and practice is the best proof.

  Stars bring their own popularity. If they can stand for the works of screenwriters, it should be more likely for producers to consider bringing goods. Well-known directors, screenwriters and big coffees in the industry recommend scripts, which may also increase trading opportunities.

  In addition, the platform can also assist scriptwriters to display scripts through technical means and creative methods, such as script advertisements, real-life interpretation of scripts, VR/AR, applets and so on. 5G is the biggest variable of live broadcast, and it is also a live broadcast to sell scripts. The improvement of video clarity will create a better story experience.

  Fourth, expand the types of users.

  Producers tend to be market-oriented when they control the content of the script. Jing Wong, a well-known Hong Kong director, has publicly stated that the standard of his film is that the audience likes it. Although this statement may not be accurate, it can really inspire the platform.

  At present, "selling scripts by live broadcast" is mainly aimed at producers, but the scope of communication and influence is limited, far less than that of live broadcast platform. The platform can expand the targeted user types to the general public, and in turn change the minds of a few people by influencing the minds of most people. Because the producers know the public’s preferences, they may trade, then make a film and reshape the audience’s preferences.

  Of course, we can’t ignore the scriptwriting. At the beginning of the event, the platform required that the script must be a complete script with copyright, and the TV series should have at least 5 episodes. Although in theory, scriptwriters occupy the advantages of time and public opinion, there are many people who exploit the loopholes, and the legal team of the platform still needs to make emergency plans for the protection of scriptwriters’ rights and interests.

  As screenwriter Yu Fei said, it is a blessing for the industry if the live broadcast of scripts can form a new industrial model and make the best scriptwriters and scripts go to the market from here, but it is very difficult. But even if it is difficult, it is worth trying.

通过admin

Selected as a non-legacy, 44 China "tea culture" impressed the world.

  [Global Times reporter Chen Qianzhong Yuhua] Editor’s Note: On the evening of November 29th, Beijing time, at the 17th regular session of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritage, China’s declared "China’s traditional tea-making skills and related customs" passed the evaluation and was included in the UNESCO representative list of human intangible cultural heritage. Human beings need harmonious coexistence and elegant and poetic habitation. China tea culture pays attention to "tea and the world", and its concept of "quietness and elegance" meets the needs of today’s world.

  Non-legacy projects mainly come from four major tea areas.

  "Traditional tea-making skills and related customs in China" refers to the knowledge, skills and practices related to tea garden management, tea picking, hand-made tea and tea drinking and sharing. Wang Fuzhou, vice president of the Chinese Academy of Art and director of the China Intangible Cultural Heritage Protection Center, told the Global Times reporter that the project included 44 small projects from 15 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) across the country. This declaration covers traditional tea-making techniques such as green tea, black tea, oolong tea, white tea, black tea, yellow tea, reprocessed tea, etc., and also includes related customs such as jingshan tea banquet and tea-driving field, which can be called the "largest volume" in all previous human heritage declaration projects in China. According to the local conditions, tea makers have developed more than 2,000 kinds of tea products with different colors, smells, tastes and shapes, using tools such as frying pan, bamboo plaque and baking cage, and using core techniques such as deactivating enzymes, suffocating yellow, piling, withering, fermenting and scenting.

  The tea maker is withering the Fuding white tea.

  Wang Fuzhou said that traditional tea-making techniques are closely related to geographical location and natural environment, mainly concentrated in the four major tea-making areas of Jiangnan, Jiangbei, Southwest and South China, south of the Huaihe River in Qinling Mountains of China and east of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, including Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Hunan, Anhui, Hubei, Henan, Shaanxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and other provinces (cities, autonomous regions); Related customs are widely spread all over the country and shared by many ethnic groups.

  A document submitted by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to UNESCO states that tea is ubiquitous in the daily life of China people. People drink tea in homes, workplaces, teahouses, restaurants and temples by soaking and boiling. Tea is an important part of social activities and ceremonies such as weddings, apprentices and sacrifices.

  As a member of this application project, Wang Fuzhou said that the selection of "China traditional tea-making skills and related customs" as this application project is due to the fact that tea has traditional skills, its geographical distribution is wide, its heritage types are rich, and it has the historical significance of East-West exchanges such as the ancient Silk Road and the ancient tea-horse road.

  Yu Jinlong, a cultural scholar, told the Global Times reporter that the western lifestyle that consumes a lot and pays attention to material things is no longer suitable for human development. Humans need a richer spiritual life. The excellent Chinese traditional culture just meets human needs, and tea culture is an outstanding representative.

  China tea is connected to the whole world.

  Zou Jiaju, president of Yunnan Tea Industry Association, told Global Times that China was the first country in the world to grow and make tea. Tea has been associated with China people for thousands of years, which has been verified in many historical materials, including Shennong Herbal Classic, China’s first drug monograph, Tea Classic written by Lu Yu in Tang Dynasty, and Su Shi, a great poet in Song Dynasty’s discussion on drinking tea in his poems. Tea has a long history in China, which is not only deeply integrated into people’s daily life, but also becomes an important carrier for inheriting Chinese culture.

  Jiang Song, a cultural scholar, told reporters that the earliest tea was basically drunk by some nobles and elites. Subsequently, the development and popularization of tea drinking culture was related to religion. It can be found from some literature records that Taoism and Buddhism were very popular in the Southern and Northern Dynasties. Taoists and monks all followed a way of clearing up after noon and drinking tea to refresh their minds. In the Tang Dynasty, Buddhism spread widely, and ordinary people began to drink tea, forming a mass tea drinking culture, which reached its peak in the Song Dynasty. From Zhang Zeduan’s "The Riverside Scene at Qingming Festival", we can see many teahouses. In the Northern Song Dynasty, drinking tea in teahouses has become an important social way. In the Song Dynasty, there was an elegant way of fighting tea, in which the tea-fighters took their own good tea, cooked it in turn, and evaluated each other to compete. Tea fighting includes tea fighting products, tea fighting orders and tea games. One of the links of tea fighting is to crush the tea cake, then fry it, and then use boiling water to break the tea with special tools. The longer the foam lasts, the better the tea is.

  Zheng Changling, deputy director and secretary-general of China Folk Culture Innovation and Development Center, told the Global Times reporter that people in China discovered tea very early and widely produced and served their lives, leaving behind the ancient tea-horse road, which is talked about by people today.

  As a famous commercial road, such as Silk Road, Maritime Silk Road and Wanli Tea Ceremony, the ancient tea-horse road is a link between different regions, different nationalities and different cultures, a historical witness to the prosperity of the Chinese nation and an important symbol of Chinese civilization.

  The Yunnan-Tibet line and Sichuan-Tibet line of the original Tea-Horse Road crossed the Hengduan Mountain and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau for the first time in the form of an expedition road, extended to the western regions, and joined the Silk Road. The phenomenon of multicultural interaction and exchange formed on the Tea-Horse Road, which became one of the powerful arteries connecting ancient and modern China with the outside world. More than 20 ethnic groups, including Han, Tibetan, Dai, Yi and Naxi, inhabit the area radiated by the Tea-Horse Ancient Road, which is a collection of Central Plains culture, Tibetan traditional culture, Baye culture, fire culture, Dongba culture and other cultural forms, and Tibetan Buddhism and Zen have also left different degrees of influence.

  Yu Jinlong, a cultural scholar, told the Global Times reporter that as the origin of tea trees and the birthplace of tea culture, China’s tea, tea trees and tea culture spread all over the world with the development of cultural exchanges and commercial trade. It was introduced to Japan, Korea, South Asia, Southeast Asia and other regions in the Tang Dynasty, and spread to European countries, the American continent, the Middle East, Russia and other regions in the 16th century. Under the direct influence of China’s tea culture, Britain, Japan, South Korea, Russia and Morocco have also formed their own tea culture. Among them, Japanese tea ceremony and Korean tea ceremony are most influenced by Chinese tea culture.

  Jiang Song said that in the Tang Dynasty, when Jian Zhen traveled eastward, Buddhism brought tea to Japan, which changed the Japanese way of life. Among the western countries, tea has had the most influence on Britain since the 17th century, which in turn has affected the whole of Europe. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the whole national economy of Britain was affected by the tea trade. According to statistics, 10% of British national income was used to buy tea, which became an important luxury. Some elites thought that the British people were too extravagant in tea consumption, so they suggested that they reduce drinking tea. However, drinking tea has become a way of life, not only because the British diet with more meat needs tea to improve digestion, but also because drinking afternoon tea has become a social way, and then a large number of teahouses have appeared. At that time, a housewife was not a qualified housewife if she could not cook tea for her guests.

  By the 19th century, Britain’s national economy was closely related to two kinds of plants, one was to spend silver to buy China tea, the other was to control the huge trade deficit, and began to grow poppies in India to make opium, and later even launched two opium wars.

  In order to narrow the huge trade deficit, Britain decided to steal tea seeds. In the late Qing Dynasty, Robert Fujun, a British plant hunter, smuggled China tea trees to India. At present, tea is grown in at least 50 countries around the world, and more than 120 countries import tea from China. The number of people who like tea in the world has exceeded 5 billion. It can be said that tea and tea culture originated in China have spread all over the world.

  The closed-door policy was adopted in the late Qing Dynasty, and China’s tea-making techniques and other related tea cultures began to lag behind Japan in commercial marketing and communication. However, the tea-growing techniques and tea-making techniques inherited by China people for thousands of years are profound and profound, and they are still second to none today.

  Non-genetic inheritor: Successful application for World Heritage is only the starting point.

  Fan Shenghua, a provincial representative inheritor of the picking and production skills of the national intangible cultural heritage project "West Lake Longjing Tea", participated in this application. He told the Global Times reporter that the success of the application means heavier responsibility and better inheritance. After 48 years of frying tea, in order to pass on the "frying tea skills left by ancestors from generation to generation", Fan Shenghua began to go to surrounding schools and vocational skills training units to train the production skills of West Lake Longjing tea in 2015. "It takes patience to stir-fry tea, which is what I often emphasize with young people." Yang Feng, the inheritor of the intangible cultural heritage of Zhenghe white tea making skills, once participated in the production of Bai Mudan, the national gift of the G20 Hangzhou Summit in 2016. He told the Global Times reporter that the success of this application is enough to prove the value of China tea and tea making skills, which is an important example of Chinese culture’s self-confidence.

  Successful application for the World Heritage is conducive to promoting the sustainable and healthy development of the global tea industry, deepening the integration and mutual learning of tea culture, and letting more people know and love tea, enjoy the fragrance of tea and share a better life. At the same time, tea culture will have a far-reaching impact on moral cultivation and personality shaping. Promoting the exchange and mutual learning of world civilizations through the Silk Road will play an important role in the sustainable development of human society.

  At present, Yang Feng’s tea factory cooperates with international organizations to provide a study tour mode of "labor for accommodation". Over the past few years, hundreds of volunteers from more than 10 countries have been attracted to live in tea factories and experience life with the workers. These volunteers have also brought their understanding and good memories of Zhenghe white tea to all corners of the country.

  Yang Feng told the Global Times reporter, "The application for the World Heritage is only the starting point. We should focus on the quality of tea and cherish the value of the brand. With the country ‘ The belt and road initiative ’ The implementation of the initiative responds to the call for China culture to go abroad. I hope that international friends who love tea can walk into Chashan to learn about China’s tea culture and bring our tea, century-old tea taste and our customs to all parts of the world. " Zheng Changling told the Global Times reporter that through this application, we can not only see the profound tea culture in China, but also need to see the ideas, wisdom, experience, emotion and spirit of understanding nature and pursuing harmony with the natural society, promote the inheritance and spread of cultural heritage, promote the public’s Chinese cultural consciousness, and further establish cultural self-confidence with more concrete substantive connotations.