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Game addiction is a disease? The standard of diagnosis is actually quite "strict"

  Game addiction is a disease? Recently, a news from the World Health Assembly has sparked heated public opinion.

  At the 72nd World Health Assembly held in Geneva, Switzerland not long ago, the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) was adopted. Among them, "game disorder", as a disease, is included in the classification of "disorder caused by addictive behavior".

  Equating game barriers and game addiction with diseases has caused controversy all over the world. There are some supporters waving flags and shouting, and the opponents with clear-cut flags are equally huge. Why do game obstacles become diseases? How to treat it? Discussions around these topics are still going on.

  Not even playing for a few days is sick.

  To what extent do you become addicted to games? The standard of diagnosis is actually quite "strict".

  In ICD-11, the identification of "game obstacles" mainly includes three behavior modes: the control over game behavior is weakened; The priority of playing games is higher than daily life and other normal hobbies; Despite the negative consequences, continuing to play games has caused serious damage to individuals, families, society, education, work or other important fields. In addition, the above behavior patterns need to last for at least 12 months before they can be used as a basis for diagnosis.

  "Because the game has affected daily life and lasted for more than one year, only in this way can it belong to ‘ Sick ’ 。” In this regard, Hao Wei, one of the drafters of ICD-11 "Game Obstacles" and the deputy director of the Institute of Mental Health of the Second Xiangya Hospital in China, said that the so-called "Game Obstacles" are not even sick after playing games for several days in a row, but have a detailed diagnostic standard.

  This means that either playing games is a "game obstacle". Who has previously issued a document saying that research shows that only a small number of people who participate in digital or video game activities are affected by game obstacles. Dr Vladimir Pozdnyak, Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse of WHO, also said, "Most people who play video games will not be affected by this obstacle, just as most people who drink alcohol will not be affected by ‘ Alcohol use disorder ’ Influence, but excessive use in certain circumstances will lead to adverse effects. "

  Nevertheless, why has the game alone become the target of public criticism? Behind the "game obstacle" is actually a response to people’s health concerns caused by electronic devices.

  WHO pointed out that the inclusion of "game barriers" in mental and behavioral disorders is aimed at solving a series of concerns about the impact of excessive use of electronic devices on public health. However, in the process of evaluating the existing evidence and research, the participating experts did not find enough evidence to include any technology-driven behavioral addiction such as "smartphone addiction".

  Comparatively speaking, the scientific research results of "game obstacles" are more abundant. Hao Wei said that medical research has found that game addiction has "withdrawal symptoms" similar to chemical addiction. For example, the brain images of some people who are addicted to games are similar to those who are addicted to chemical substances.

  Give priority to with psychotherapy.

  Since "game obstacle" is a disease, how should it be treated?

  Previously, there have been some treatment institutions for "internet addiction teenagers" in many places, and they have adopted extreme methods such as corporal punishment and electric shock to "treat", which has caused great controversy. Experts said that although WHO did not provide specific treatment guidance for "game barriers", for medical institutions, this move made relevant diagnosis and treatment well-founded. Health professionals can pay more attention to this obstacle and promote more research on the prevention and treatment of game obstacles.

  It is reported that in Beijing, Guangzhou and other places, some professional hospitals have carried out treatment and research on game obstacles.

  A few days ago, Beijing huilongguan hospital Behavioral Addiction Ward was officially opened, which is the first behavioral addiction treatment ward opened by public mental health medical institutions in China, and mainly treats patients with behavioral addiction such as game disorder and gambling disorder.

  Yang Kebing, deputy director of the hospital, said that the current treatment cycle of game addiction is 6 weeks — 8 weeks, divided into two stages. The treatment method is mainly psychotherapy, and there are 10 cognitive behavioral therapy modules, including interpersonal relationship management, family therapy, self-emotional management and so on. The first 4 weeks — In 6 weeks, patients should completely abstain from internet and mobile phones. During this period, the hospital will carry out outward bound training, and replace the game in various ways. For the next two weeks, patients were taught to use the internet healthily by limiting the use time.

  At present, the addiction ward is an open ward, which is equipped with a single bed, a writing desk, a sofa and green plants, and family members can also accompany the treatment. In the group therapy room, a mini KTV has been specially set up to help patients have fun outside the game.

  "If the patient seriously affects social interaction because of the game, he should go to the hospital for evaluation in time." Yang Fude, president of Beijing huilongguan hospital, said that the addiction ward can ensure the continuity of treatment, patients can easily build up the trust between doctors and patients with the help of fixed medical staff, and continuous evaluation can better follow up patients’ illness. At the same time, the hospital can provide more comprehensive treatment methods, which will help solve the problem with serious symptoms.

  Advocate healthy ways of playing games.

  Although it has been officially included in ICD-11, the "quarrel" around game addiction continues.

  Just after the adoption of the resolution, game organizations from Europe, North America and Australia, South Korea, South Africa, Brazil and other countries and regions jointly issued a statement, hoping that WHO could re-examine the resolution. The statement said: "‘ Game obstacle ’ It is not based on strong enough evidence, and it is not enough to be included in the most important standard of ICD. "

  Many practitioners in the game industry said that the key to game obstacles lies in "obstacles" rather than "games", so the positive role of games and the development achievements of the game industry should not be denied. At the same time, game companies should strengthen and improve the anti-addiction system of games, avoid teenagers’ excessive games, and create a healthy development space for the game industry.

  Some medical staff said that game obstacles are classified as mental illness, not to oppose games, but to oppose games that are harmful to physical and mental health. Medical institutions should help patients with game disorders get rid of out-of-control game behavior, establish a correct game use model, and regain sound social functions.

  "The key factor of game addiction is family education." A parent who once sent his children to an internet addiction rehabilitation institution said that the family should give their children enough love and attention, accompany them to grow up, guide them to play rationally, and help them enhance their ability to resist setbacks in the process of growing up.


State Council: Accelerate the resumption of international flights in key aviation hubs such as Beijing, Guangzhou and Shanghai.

According to the Chinese government website, a few days ago, the General Office of the State Council issued the "Action Plan for Firmly Promoting High-level Opening-up and Attracting and Utilizing Foreign Capital", which proposed to facilitate the exchange of international business people. It is convenient for foreign businessmen to apply for visas to China. For managers and technicians of foreign-invested enterprises and their accompanying spouses and minor children, the validity period of visas is relaxed to two years. Accelerate the recovery of the number of international flights in key aviation hubs such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou.

A quick glance at the main points

● Reasonably reduce the negative list of foreign investment access. Completely cancel the restrictions on foreign investment access in the manufacturing sector.

● Piloting the relaxation of foreign investment access in the field of scientific and technological innovation.

● For eligible reinvested enterprise projects, imported self-use equipment shall be exempted from customs duties.

● Support qualified foreign-invested enterprises to issue RMB bonds for financing in China.

● Ensure the reasonable energy demand of foreign-funded projects without discrimination.

● Expand the industrial catalogue and list of foreign-funded projects to encourage foreign investment.

● Facilitate the introduction of foreign talents to work, stop living and stay permanently in China.

expand market access

Reasonably reduce the negative list of foreign investment access

We will improve the national treatment plus negative list management system before foreign investment access, completely abolish the restrictions on foreign investment access in the manufacturing sector, and continue to promote the expansion and opening up of telecommunications, medical care and other fields.

Piloting the relaxation of foreign investment access in the field of scientific and technological innovation

● Beijing, Shanghai, Guangdong and other free trade pilot zones are allowed to select a number of qualified foreign-invested enterprises to conduct pilot projects in the development and application of gene diagnosis and treatment technologies.

● Support the opening-up measures in areas such as information services (limited to application stores) to achieve better results in the free trade pilot zone.

Expand the access of foreign financial institutions in the field of banking and insurance.

● Under the premise of ensuring safety, efficiency and stability, support qualified foreign-funded institutions to carry out bank card clearing business according to law.

● Deepen the opening of commercial pension insurance, health insurance and other industries, and support qualified overseas professional insurance institutions to invest and set up or participate in insurance institutions in China.

Expand the business scope of foreign financial institutions participating in the domestic bond market.

● Optimize relevant procedures for foreign financial institutions to participate in the domestic capital market, and further facilitate foreign financial institutions to participate in the China bond market.

● Support qualified foreign-funded financial institutions to participate in domestic bond underwriting as required.

● Study and steadily promote more qualified foreign banks to participate in the pilot trading of treasury bonds futures.

In-depth implementation of the domestic investment pilot of qualified overseas limited partners

● Expand the pilot scope of qualified overseas limited partners, standardize the requirements of qualified overseas limited partners to manage enterprises and funds in terms of registered capital and shareholders, and broaden the scope that funds can invest.

● Improve the management measures for private equity fund services, encourage foreign investors to set up private equity funds and carry out various investment activities according to law.

Strengthen the policy.

Expand the catalogue of industries and the list of foreign-funded projects that encourage foreign investment.

● The catalogue of industries in which foreign investment is encouraged throughout the country will increase its support for advanced manufacturing, high-tech, energy conservation and environmental protection, and the catalogue of industries with foreign investment advantages in the central and western regions will increase its support for basic manufacturing, applicable technologies and people’s livelihood consumption.

● Actively support foreign-funded projects in the fields of integrated circuits, biomedicine and high-end equipment to be included in the list of major and key foreign-funded projects, and allow them to enjoy corresponding support policies.

Implement tax support policies

● Foreign-invested enterprises can enjoy the tariff exemption policy for imported equipment for their own use if the projects invested by reinvested enterprises in China meet the requirements of encouraging foreign investment industries.

● Implement relevant preferential tax policies for foreign investors to invest in financial markets such as China bond market.

Increase financial support.

● Encourage financial institutions to provide high-quality financial services and financing support for qualified foreign-funded projects in accordance with the principle of marketization.

● Support qualified foreign-invested enterprises to issue RMB bonds for financing in China and use them for domestic investment projects.

● Promote the implementation of foreign exchange management facilitation policies for cross-border trade and investment, and continuously improve the convenience of foreign exchange business of foreign-invested enterprises.

Strengthen energy use guarantee

● Improve the regulation of total energy consumption and intensity, focus on controlling fossil energy consumption, implement policies such as excluding raw material energy consumption and non-fossil energy consumption from total energy consumption and intensity control, and ensure the reasonable energy demand of foreign-funded projects without discrimination.

● Accelerate the promotion of green certificate transactions and inter-provincial green electricity transactions to better meet the green electricity demand of foreign-invested enterprises.

Support the central, western and northeastern regions to undertake industrial transfer.

● Encourage the central, western and northeastern regions to give full play to local comparative advantages, and formulate policies and measures to reduce the costs of land, energy, labor and logistics for manufacturing enterprises according to local conditions.

● Plan and integrate key development zones in the central, western and northeastern regions, carry out industrial transfer cooperation with foreign investment in pairs with the eastern region, and establish and improve the mechanism and implementation rules for project promotion, cadre exchange and revenue sharing.

Optimize the level playing field

Clean up acts and policies and measures that violate fair competition

● Deal with the discriminatory behaviors of foreign-invested enterprises in government procurement, bidding, qualification licensing, standard setting and subsidies reflected by business entities in a timely manner, and notify the responsible entities and make rectification within a time limit.

● Accelerate the formulation and promulgation of standards for government procurement of domestic products, and treat products that meet the standards produced by domestic and foreign-funded enterprises equally and equally in government procurement activities. Comprehensively clean up policies and measures that hinder unified market and fair competition.

Improve the bidding system

● Accelerate the revision of the bidding law.

● Organize special treatment of outstanding problems in the field of bidding and tendering, focus on correcting problems that are strongly reflected by a number of business entities, and break unreasonable restrictions that restrict enterprises of all ownership to participate in bidding and tendering on an equal footing.

● Formulate fair competition review rules in the field of bidding, strengthen the rigid constraints of fair competition review, and avoid issuing policy documents that exclude and restrict fair competition.

Fair participation in standard formulation and revision

● Support foreign-invested enterprises to participate in advanced manufacturing, engineering materials, information and communication standardization technical committees or related standardization organizations under the same conditions, and participate in the formulation and revision of standards on an equal footing according to law.

● Publicize national standard information in a timely manner to improve the transparency and openness of standardization work.

Improve the scientific level of administrative law enforcement

Strictly implement the publicity system of administrative law enforcement, strictly implement the list of administrative inspection items, resolutely avoid repeated inspections, promptly correct irregular administrative law enforcement behaviors, and gradually implement off-site supervision characterized by remote supervision, early warning and prevention.

Continue to build the brand of "Investing in China"

● Relying on important exhibition platforms, we will carry out key investment promotion activities of "Investing in China" to show overseas investors China’s high-quality business environment and investment opportunities in all directions.

● Establish and improve the working mechanism, give full play to the role of foreign embassies and consulates as business organizations, support the combination of "going out" and "please come in" in local areas, and carry out investment promotion in a normal way.

● Organize international industrial investment cooperation and docking activities to promote more project negotiation and signing.

Strengthen the service of foreign-invested enterprises

● Make good use of platforms such as round tables of foreign-funded enterprises, deepen normalized exchanges with foreign-funded enterprises, foreign chambers of commerce associations and international organizations, respond to the concerns of all parties in a timely manner, and provide targeted service guarantees.

● Improve the inter-departmental coordination mechanism for complaints of foreign-invested enterprises at all levels, improve the direct contact system of foreign-invested enterprises, smooth communication channels, and timely understand and promote the resolution of problems and reasonable demands reflected by foreign-invested enterprises.

● Implement the information reporting system for foreign investment and continuously promote departmental data sharing. Foreign-invested enterprises shall not be required to submit the information that can be obtained through departmental information sharing.

Smooth the flow of innovation factors

Support foreign-invested enterprises and headquarters data flow

● Standardize data cross-border security management, organize data exit security assessment, standardize personal information exit standard contract filing and other related work, and promote the safe and orderly cross-border flow of data such as R&D, production and sales of foreign-invested enterprises.

● Formulate standards for cross-border data transfer in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, establish a cross-border data flow mechanism for enterprises in Hong Kong and Macao based on major cooperation platforms such as Hengqin Guangdong-Macao Deep Cooperation Zone and Qianhai Shenzhen-Hong Kong Modern Service Industry Cooperation Zone, explore the establishment of a "white list" system for cross-border data flow, and steadily promote the convenient data flow in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area.

Facilitate the exchange of international business personnel

● It is convenient for foreign businessmen to apply for visas to China. For managers and technicians of foreign-invested enterprises, their accompanying spouses and minor children, the validity period of visas is relaxed to two years.

● Accelerate the recovery of the number of international flights in key aviation hubs such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou.

Optimize the management of foreigners’ work and residence permits in China.

● Optimize the procedures for foreigners’ work permits and work-related residence permits in China, and adopt the method of "one-stop acceptance and parallel approval" to form a faster and more efficient approval mechanism.

● Strengthen departmental coordination to facilitate the introduction of foreign talents to work, stop residence and stay permanently in China.

Support domestic and foreign institutions to cooperate and innovate.

We will further implement the international scientific and technological cooperation plan under the new situation, and support foreign-invested enterprises, foreign-funded R&D institutions and multinational companies established in China to participate in national key R&D plans, major national science and technology projects and other national science and technology projects on an equal footing.

Improve domestic regulations

Strengthen the protection of intellectual property rights

● Dock international high-standard intellectual property rules, improve intellectual property protection regulations, speed up the construction of a national intellectual property protection information platform, strengthen the construction of a trade secret protection system, and thoroughly implement the work plan for administrative protection of intellectual property rights.

● Focus on key areas and key links, and increase the protection of intellectual property rights of foreign-invested enterprises.

● Intensify the investigation and punishment of IPR infringement cases, and resolutely crack down on and punish IPR infringement of foreign-invested enterprises.

Improve the rules of cross-border data flow.

● Scientifically define the scope of important data.

● Fully and deeply participate in the e-commerce negotiations of the World Trade Organization, and accelerate the construction of global digital trade rules.

● Explore the pilot project of cross-border data flow with the members of the Digital Economy Partnership Agreement, accelerate the establishment of cooperation mechanisms for cross-border data flow with major economic and trade partner countries and regions, and promote the construction of a multi-level global digital partnership network.

Actively promote the negotiation and implementation of high-standard economic and trade agreements

● Actively promote China’s accession to the Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement and the Digital Economy Partnership Agreement, take the initiative to promote domestic reforms in related fields in accordance with relevant rules, regulations, management and standards, and promote the inclusion of some high-standard economic and trade rules in the arrangement of establishing closer economic and trade relations between the mainland and Hong Kong and Macao.

● Promote the negotiation and signing of free trade agreements with more countries and regions, and expand the global network of high-standard free trade zones.

Intensify the pilot project of docking international high-standard economic and trade rules

● Give full play to the leading role of the national service industry in expanding and opening up the comprehensive demonstration zone, accurately meet the needs of industrial development, take the lead in building an open service system that is in line with international high-standard economic and trade rules, and timely connect with the comprehensive pilot zone for expanding and opening up the service industry.

● Support the conditional free trade pilot zone and Hainan Free Trade Port to base themselves on the national conditions, connect with international high-standard economic and trade rules, and take the lead in exploring and implementing the results of negotiations in the fields of domestic regulation of service trade, investment facilitation and digital trade of the World Trade Organization. Continue to slide to see the next touch to read the original text.

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Original title: "State Council: Promoting the Accelerated Resumption of International Flights in Key Aviation Hub such as Beijing, Guangzhou and Shanghai"

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Tangshan: 75 years of historical changes

Tangshan people celebrate the liberation conference of Pingjin Tang (information piece)

"Long live the Communist Party of China (CPC)!" "Our good days are coming!" On December 12, 1948, in the hometown of Li Dazhao, one of the main founders of the Communist Party of China (CPC), cheers of joy resounded through the earth, and Tangshan returned to the embrace of the people, opening a magnificent new development process.

After the Communist Party of China (CPC) took over the "mess", Tangshan party and government organizations at all levels proposed to mobilize the enthusiasm of the people in the city to fully restore and develop production. Thus, with the spirit of "three donkey legs make revolution", the spirit of "contemporary foolish man" with "Wan Li carrying a thousand acres of land and creating high yield on bluestone boards", and the red flag of Kailuan coal mine inspired by the spirit of "special fighting" … these spirits have cast a model of self-reliance in the early days of the construction of new China and become an example of Tangshan people’s integration of family and country and sharing weal and woe. While the urban development is booming, a 7.8-magnitude earthquake struck Tangshan on July 28th, 1976. Under the strong leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC), the heroic people of Tangshan were reborn from destruction and rose in rebirth, creating a miracle on earth with the "anti-seismic spirit" and witnessing the superiority of the socialist system.



记者 杜雯拓 吕光宇 张北男 闫军 摄影报道(资料片由唐山市档案馆提供)