标签归档 上海龙凤千花1314


Evolution from Distributed to Centralized: Counting 10 Star Enterprises of Intelligent Driving Chip

Full set of video processing and image recognition IP for advanced sensing and recognition.

R-Car V4H, the central processor for ADAS and AD solutions released by Renesas in 2022, adopts 7-nanometer technology, with a deep learning performance of 34TOPS, and can recognize and process the surrounding objects at high speed through cameras, radars and lidar. The device is scheduled to start mass production in the second quarter of 2024. With the careful combination of first-class IP and professional hardware optimization, R-Car V4H has achieved an industry-leading performance-to-power ratio, which is suitable for mass production of L2+ and L3 autopilot applications.

Thanks to its high degree of integration, R-Car V4H helps customers to develop a cost-competitive single-chip ADAS electronic control unit (ECU) to support L2+ and L3 driving systems, including complete NCAP 2025 functions. R-Car V4H also supports the function of looking around and automatic parking, and has excellent 3D visual rendering effect.

Concluding remarks

The development of automobile intelligence is expected to bring trillions of market opportunities. From the current situation, L3 and above autopilot is accelerating penetration, and the demand for high-power autopilot chips is also increasing. In addition to the major enterprises mentioned above, many domestic enterprises such as CAMBRIAN, Zero Run, and Naineng have actively invested in the field of chips.

However, the research and development of autonomous driving chips is a process with huge initial investment and long payback period. Therefore, if there is no loading capacity of 1 million vehicles, it is impossible to make a profit by developing an autopilot chip with the power of a main engine factory and using it by itself.

On the whole, the smart driving chip market is still in a rapid iteration period, and China manufacturers are expected to break through, but they also have to face many uncertainties. Only by firmly grasping the certainty and market rhythm, accelerating the iteration of technology, products and tool chains, and taking the lead in forming a closed-loop business, can we further compete with the global automotive chip giants after squeezing into the table.

There are two identical NPUs in each FSD chip, which have strong computing power and are physically integrated adjacent to each other. In each calculation cycle, NPU will read 256 bytes of activation data from the built-in 32MB SRAM and combine them with another 128 bytes of weight data to enter the multiply-accumulate (MAC), and each NPU has a 96×96MAC array. After completing the MAC multiplication and accumulation operation, the data will be transferred to the Activations and Pooling parts, waiting to write the summary results in the buffer.

Tesla has also made great efforts to optimize the power consumption and cost of NNA (Neural Network Acceleration Unit) in order to make the data flow in the chip as much as possible without frequently reading and writing with memory or other modules. In the design of NNA, software is used to simplify the hardware to reduce the chip cost.

Tesla chips cover everything from autonomous driving, intelligent cockpit, domain control architecture, three electric systems, and even vehicle manufacturing and assembly. From the point of view of autonomous driving, Tesla is the only company that has realized the full-stack self-research of software and hardware at present, taking a technical route that is difficult to replicate. Tesla’s FSD chips are basically for personal use and are not for sale.


Qualcomm is a mobile phone chip giant, and its entry point in the automotive field is communication and cockpit chips, with its 820A, 8155 and 8295 occupying a major share in the mid-to-high-end smart cockpit market. Previous Snapdragon Ride autopilot computing platforms, including the 5-nanometer Snapdragon 8540 and the 7-nanometer Snapdragon 9000, with a single-chip computing power of 360TOPS, have been put on the bus one after another.

At the beginning of 2023, Qualcomm introduced Snapdragon Ride Flex SoC supporting central computing architecture, which supports digital cockpit, ADAS and autopilot functions at the same time with a single SoC, providing more than 700TOPS of computing power. The first Ride Flex SoC has been sampled and is expected to be mass-produced in 2024.

At present, Qualcomm has reached cooperation with Great Wall, General Motors, BMW, Volkswagen and other manufacturers in the field of autonomous driving. In the future, the Snapdragon Ride platform will be applied to some models of the above-mentioned car factories.

In April this year, Qualcomm also completed the acquisition of Weininger, which supplemented the algorithm capability of autopilot software. Its application fields include radar, perception system, autopilot algorithm, functional safety/expected functional safety, etc.


NVIDIA is a representative of the big computing chip, and has entered the field of smart cars with the evolution of GPU architecture. In NVIDIA’s NVIDIADrive series, DRIVECX faces the cockpit, and DRIVEPX faces autonomous driving; Since then, the automatic driving platforms of DRIVEPX, DRIVEPX2, DrivePXXavier, DRIVEPXPegasus and DRIVEAGX Orin have been introduced iteratively.

DRIVE Orin is a system on a chip released by NVIDIA, and it is the central computer of intelligent vehicles, which can provide 254TOPS per second, meeting the safety standards such as ISO 26262 ASIL-D. In March 2022, NVIDIA’s DRIVEAGX Orin platform began mass production and sales. The platform consists of two Orin SoC and two Ampere-based GPUs, with a maximum computing power of 2000TOPS and a power consumption of 800W W.

Orin SoC adopts 7 nm technology, which is composed of Ampere-based GPU, ARMHerculesCPU, second-generation deep learning accelerator DLA, second-generation vision accelerator PVA, video codec, and ISP with wide dynamic range. At the same time, it introduces the design of SafetyIsland. The hardware of the chip can be connected with 14 cameras, 1 laser radar, 5 millimeter-wave radars and 12 ultrasonic radars, and the sensor data is calculated 254 trillion times per second by Orin to realize high-level automatic driving function.

NVIDIA’s automobile business has formed a strong open ecology including Tier1, sensors and software manufacturers. At present, NVIDIA has dominated the high-end passenger car market of over 300,000. In the next six years, NVIDIA’s orders in hand will exceed $11 billion. According to incomplete statistics, more than 25 OEMs around the world have reached Orin cooperation with NVIDIA, including Weilai, Tucki, Ideality, Weimar, SAIC Zhiji, R Auto, Faraday Future, Lucid Group, Human Horizons Vinfast, Chinese Express and other new car-making forces; And BYD, Mercedes-Benz, Jaguar Land Rover, Volvo, Hyundai, Audi, Lotus and other traditional OEMs. In addition, Desai Siwei, Baidu Apollo, General Cruise and Google Waymo will also develop ADAS solutions based on Orin.


Mobileye is the earliest self-driving overlord. The "visual algorithm+chip" solution occupies about 70% market share in the L0-L2 market and was acquired by Intel in 2017.

EyeQ series chips are the core of Mobileye. Three years after mass production of EyeQ4, Mobileye launched the 7 nm FinFET process EyeQ5 in 2021. It includes multi-threaded 8-core CPU and 18-core vision processor, and its computing power is increased to 24TOPS, and its power consumption is only 10W, which can meet the driving demand of L4.

In 2022, Mobileye laid out high-level autopilot, and issued three chips in succession, including EyeQUltra for L4 autopilot, and EyeQ6L and EyeQ6H for L2 autopilot.

Compared with the previous products, the performance of the three chips has been greatly improved under the premise of controlling energy consumption. In particular, EyeQUltra, which is specially designed for autonomous driving, has 64 core processors and 12 RISC-VCPU, each with 24 threads, which can achieve high-efficiency and accurate calculation with less than 100W power consumption. It does not need the computing power and cost of integrating multiple systems, and solves the major challenges faced by the industry. EyeQUltra is expected to be fully put into production in 2025. This chip is benchmarked against Xavier of NVIDIA, but its computing power seems to be slightly lower than that of NVIDIA.

In the early days, mainstream OEMs chose EyeQ3 and EyeQ4 series in succession, which enabled Mobileye to successfully occupy the pre-assembly market. However, its black box model has shown signs of acclimatization and the market growth rate has slowed down. Previously, Mobileye EyeQ6, EyeQ6L and EyeQ6H had reached in-depth cooperation with Volkswagen Group and Ford Motor Company, and also reached an agreement with Geely. EyeQUltra is expected to provide samples in 2023 and mass-produce cars in 2024.

Heizhima intelligent

Black Sesame Intelligence is the advocator of single-chip SoC scheme. The A1000L and A1000 single-chip SoC schemes support the integration of navigation and parking without time-sharing and avoid increasing the security risks of the whole scheme.

Since 2019, the series of chips launched by Black Sesame include Huashan No.1 A500, Huashan No.2 A1000, A1000L, A1000Pro and A2000. Among them, A500 focusing on autonomous driving has a computing power of 5-10TOPS, Huashan No.2 A1000 with 16 nm technology has a computing power of 40-70TOPS, the low version A1000L has a computing power of 16TOPS, and the high version A1000Pro has a single chip computing power of 196TOPS, which supports high-level autonomous driving and can realize seamless connection from parking, urban interior to high-speed scenes. A2000 is the first 250T large computing chip in China, which adopts the core IP of domestic independent intellectual property rights in 7 nm process and meets the ASIL B level security certification standard.

In April, 2023, Black Sesame Intelligent released Wudang series cross-domain computing platform for smart cars and its first chip C1200, covering the needs of different domains of smart cars such as cockpit and smart car with higher cost performance, and realizing multi-domain integration capability. Based on 7 nm process, C1200 provides powerful general-purpose computing and general-purpose rendering computing power by using A78AE and G78AE, which support lock step. The self-developed DynamAI NN low-power neural network acceleration engine supports NOA scenarios; Built-in mature and high-performance Audio DSP module and a new generation of self-developed NeuralIQ ISP module that processes 1.5G pixels per second online. It can provide the industry’s highest MCU computing power of 32KDIPMS, handle the input of more than 12 HD cameras at the same time, and support high-speed MIPI.

Up to now, Black Sesame Intelligence has cooperated with OEMs such as Jiangqi, Dongfeng, Geely, FAW, SAIC, Hechuang Automobile and SAIC-GM-Wuling, as well as enterprises such as Bosch, Zhongke Chuangda, Soto Ruian and Baolong Group for L2 and L3 ADAS and autonomous driving perception system solutions, including Baidu Apollo’s partners.

Xinchi technology

Xinchi Technology is the world’s first "full-scene, platform-based" chip product and technical solution provider. Its products cover intelligent cockpit, intelligent driving, central gateway and MCU, covering the core chip category of the future automotive electronic and electrical architecture, aiming to achieve "four cores in one".

From 2019 to 2020, Xinchi Technology released V9L/F and V9T autopilot chips, which support ADAS and domain controller respectively. In 2022, Xinchi Technology released an autopilot chip V9P/U with a computing power of 10-200T, which has higher computing power and can support L3-level autopilot. V9 series processor is a car code chip specially designed for a new generation of intelligent driver assistance system, which integrates high-performance CPU, GPU and CV engine, and can meet the increasing demand for computing power.

In 2023, Xinchi Technology will launch a V9S autopilot chip with higher computing power, which is developed for the central computing platform architecture, with a computing power of 500-1000T, and can support L4/L5 autopilot Robotaxi.

At the 2023 Shanghai Auto Show, Xinchi Technology released a new generation of vehicle regulation processor V9P, which is specially designed for the ADAS domain controller with integrated traveling and parking. The CPU performance is 70KDMIPS, the GPU is 200GFLOPS, and the overall AI performance is as high as 20TOPS. All functions of mainstream L2+ADAS such as AEB, ACC and LKA, auxiliary parking and memory parking functions can be realized on a single chip, and the driving recorder and high-definition 360-degree viewing can be integrated.


As a large-scale pre-assembly mass production enterprise of domestic car-gauge AI chips, Horizon has successively launched China’s first car-gauge AI chip Journey 2, a new generation of AIoT intelligent application acceleration engine Sunrise 2, a high-performance car-gauge AI chip Journey 3 and a new generation of AIoT edge AI chip platform Sunrise 3.

Horizon’s third-generation car-level product Journey 5 has a single-chip computing power of up to 128TOPS, which has both large computing power and high performance, and supports the needs of 16-channel camera perception computing and multi-sensor fusion, prediction and planning control required for autonomous driving. Its core IP is 100% self-developed BPU Bayesian architecture, which can support the latest convolutional neural network and Transformer architecture and meet more than 170 different operators required for various autonomous driving scenarios. Using deep learning to accelerate ultra-large-scale parallel computing, reduce the whole computing delay and improve efficiency, and its image rate has increased from 1283 frames per second in 2021 to 1531 frames per second in 2022. With the launch of Journey 5, the horizon covers the whole vehicle smart chip scheme from L2 to L4.

At present, Horizon has reached cooperation with many OEMs and Tier 1, including Changan, FAW, SAIC, GAC, Chery, Dongfeng Motor, Zhiji, Jianghuai, Ideality, BYD, Great Wall, etc., as well as mainland China, Asia Pacific, Sagitar (parameter | inquiry) Juchuang, Winch Technology, Neusoft Ruichi, ADAYO Huayang, Desai Xiwei, etc.


As a giant in the ICT field, Huawei’s smart car business can be traced back to 2012. In 2018, it launched the smart driving computing platform, and launched the MDC600 supporting L3 and the MDC300 supporting L4. In 2019, Huawei formally established the Smart Car Solutions Division, and in 2020, it released the MDC610 computing platform, using the Ascent 610 chip, with a single chip computing power of 200TOPS.

Huawei Shengteng 910 is an AI processor with super computing power, and its maximum power consumption is 310W W. The Leonardo da Vinci architecture developed by Huawei greatly improves its energy efficiency ratio. Its 8-bit integer precision (INT8) performance reaches 640TOPS, and its 16-bit floating-point number (FP16) performance reaches 320 TFLOPS.

The Ascension series includes training and reasoning chips. The Ascension 910 used for training has a semi-precision (FP16) computing power of 256TFLOPS, which is twice that of the industry. For reasoning, the computing power of Ascension 310 and INT8 is 16TOPS, and the power consumption is only 8W.

Aiming at the demand of automatic driving for computing platform, the MDC solution introduced by Huawei integrates the self-developed Host CPU chip, AI chip, ISP chip and SSD control chip. So far, Huawei has successively launched four series products with different computing power-MDC300, MDC210, MDC610 and MDC810, covering the L2-L5 autonomous driving ecological chain.

At present, auto-driving R&D companies such as Heduo Technology, Xidi Intelligent Driving, Neolithic, Yuanrong Qixing, Tage Zhixing, Huituo, Nezha Automobile, etc. all adopt Huawei’s MDC computing platform.

Dezhou instrument

Texas Instruments (TI) is a traditional automobile chip manufacturer with rich experience in product landing and strong supply chain management ability, and its customers are all over the automobile industry. In terms of processors, TI has launched the seventh generation, and each generation uses its own IP and patents. Twenty years’ experience in digital processors has also continuously optimized this heterogeneous processor.

TI’s mainstream intelligent driving products include TDA4 VL, TDA4 VM and TDA4 VH, with computing power of 4TOPS, 8TOPS and 32TOPS respectively. Among them, the TDA4 VM of 8TOPS has been mass-produced, which is the mainstream choice for the light-weight traveling and parking integrated domain control track.

TDA4VM series processors for ADAS and self-driving cars are based on Evolutionary Jacinto 7 architecture, which combines high-performance computing, deep learning engine and special accelerator for signal and image processing in a unique way in a target architecture with safe and compatible functions, so it is very suitable for robotics, machine vision, radar and other applications.

These devices are highly integrated, which makes the advanced automobile platform supporting centralized ECU or multiple sensor modes scalable and low-cost. The key cores include the next generation DSP with scalar and vector cores, dedicated deep learning and traditional algorithm accelerators. These devices also include the latest Arm and GPU processors for general computing, integrated next generation imaging subsystem (ISP), video codec, Ethernet hub and isolated MCU island. All these are protected by automotive safety hardware accelerators.


Renesas is a traditional automobile chip giant, and its automobile products are mainly MCU and SoC Renesas. The early product is R-CAR V3H, which is heavily used in the intelligent forward-looking integrated machine with the help of Tier1 such as Bosch and Denso. R-CAR V3H SoC supports the safety index of ASIL C level in real-time domain, which can reduce the need to use external safety microcontroller to manage sensor fusion and final decision execution. R-Car V3H has rich and verified IP, supports perception stack, ISP with radar and/or lidar sensor fusion and up to 8 megapixel cameras, and also has a full set of video processing and image recognition IP for advanced sensing and recognition.

R-Car V4H, the central processor for ADAS and AD solutions released by Renesas in 2022, adopts 7-nanometer technology, with a deep learning performance of 34TOPS, and can recognize and process the surrounding objects at high speed through cameras, radars and lidar. The device is scheduled to start mass production in the second quarter of 2024. With the careful combination of first-class IP and professional hardware optimization, R-Car V4H has achieved an industry-leading performance-to-power ratio, which is suitable for mass production of L2+ and L3 autopilot applications.

Thanks to its high degree of integration, R-Car V4H helps customers to develop a cost-competitive single-chip ADAS electronic control unit (ECU) to support L2+ and L3 driving systems, including complete NCAP 2025 functions. R-Car V4H also supports the function of looking around and automatic parking, and has excellent 3D visual rendering effect.

Concluding remarks

The development of automobile intelligence is expected to bring trillions of market opportunities. From the current situation, L3 and above autopilot is accelerating penetration, and the demand for high-power autopilot chips is also increasing. In addition to the major enterprises mentioned above, many domestic enterprises such as CAMBRIAN, Zero Run, and Naineng have actively invested in the field of chips.

However, the research and development of autonomous driving chips is a process with huge initial investment and long payback period. Therefore, if there is no loading capacity of 1 million vehicles, it is impossible to make a profit by developing an autopilot chip with the power of a main engine factory and using it by itself.

On the whole, the smart driving chip market is still in a rapid iteration period, and China manufacturers are expected to break through, but they also have to face many uncertainties. Only by firmly grasping the certainty and market rhythm, accelerating the iteration of technology, products and tool chains, and taking the lead in forming a closed-loop business, can we further compete with the global automotive chip giants after squeezing into the table.


Lovely China: Showing Do not forget your initiative mind’s Faith Power.

  "Lovely China" seminar site. Information picture

  editorial comment/note

  Recently, the TV series "Lovely China", which reflects the revolutionary deeds of the martyr Fang Zhimin, was broadcast in a prime-time program of CCTV, which triggered a warm response from all walks of life. On July 30th, a seminar on the TV series "Lovely China" sponsored by the Publicity Department of the Communist Party of China Municipal Bureau of Literature and Art and the TV drama department of the State Administration of Radio, Film and Television was held in Beijing. The experts, scholars and ordinary audience at the meeting agreed that "The Lovely China is a work with heart, hard work and emotion, and a play with rich historical value and distinctive theme of the times". The play is highly compatible with the ongoing education of "Do not forget your initiative mind, Remember Mission" by the whole party, and is highly praised for its profound thoughts, exquisite art and excellent production.

  This newspaper abstracts the speeches of experts and scholars, creative teams, media representatives and audience attending the seminar for readers.

  Belief supports spiritual height

  Li Zhun (Honorary Chairman of Chinese Literary Critics Association)

  Fang Zhimin is a pure the Communist Party of China (CPC) man, and his devotion to lofty beliefs left us an example and peak that we should always look up to. Lovely China is a new discovery of the spiritual quality of Fang Zhimin and Fang Zhimin, which has made a new breakthrough in the pursuit of new spiritual height, cultural connotation and artistic value. The play puts Fang Zhimin’s life in the context of the Chinese nation’s exploration of the revolutionary road, highlights his main activities, and proves the importance of the great choice of "encircling the city from the countryside". In addition, the play strongly presents the concept of organization and overall situation, and has strong historical penetration and practical enlightenment. Fang Zhimin is a truly pure communist party native. He has always been dedicated to the organization and the Central Committee, and strictly enforced organizational discipline. In the process of portraying Fang Zhimin’s characters, the play emphasizes the power of revolutionary belief, and especially devotes itself to showing his unique personality charm and spiritual appeal because of his firm and lofty belief.

  "Lovely China" was breathtaking and played the role of Bacon’s soul-building. Fang Zhimin’s belief runs through the whole play from beginning to end, which is very real. In the face of any difficult crisis, Fang Zhimin always has a strategically advantageous position and calmly smiles at everything with great confidence in the road ahead, which is an inspiration, an infection and a guide for the audience. Fang Zhimin’s belief strength and personality charm strongly support the spiritual height of this film, and also support the spiritual height of film and television creation.

  "Do not forget your initiative mind, remember the mission." Fang Zhimin is a mirror, and The Lovely China is also a mirror. Everyone in communist party should take it as a mirror and draw strength from it.

  A new breakthrough in the theme of revolutionary history

  Chengxiang Zhong (librarian in central research institute of culture and history, chairman of Chinese Literary Critics Association)

  Whether a work can meet the requirements of the development of literature and art in the new era depends on whether it has a spiritual height, whether it embodies the most advanced ideas of mankind, and whether it has explored the profundity and richness of the human world. Considering from these aspects, The Lovely China can be said to be a new achievement and breakthrough in the creation of major revolutionary historical themes in the history of China’s TV drama development, and it can be called a fine work of art for the current education on the theme of "Do not forget your initiative mind, keep in mind the mission".

  Lovely China artistically reproduces Fang Zhimin’s core spiritual world. Fang Zhimin devoted himself to the revolution with the initial intention of national rejuvenation, which is in line with the initial intention of realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. On the other hand, Fang Zhimin has no personal interests except his dedication to the motherland and the people. This work embodies this advanced idea, which makes the audience’s spirit baptized and soul shocked. What’s more, this drama typically adheres to the creative concept of creating fine works, and it is first-class in today’s TV drama creation, whether it is the creation of its historical atmosphere, the characterization of characters or the presentation of details.

  On the occasion of welcoming the 70th anniversary of the founding of New China, this work is a sincere gift. I call on the TV industry to produce more such fine works, and TV stations should broadcast more such works to help literary and artistic creation create a new situation in the new era.

  An ode to patriotism

  Zhao Tong (Director, Theoretical Research Division, China Federation of Literary and Art Circles Television Art Center)

  The TV series "Lovely China" takes us, following Fang Zhimin’s footsteps, looking back at the stormy years, appreciating the original heart of China’s pure child, inheriting the power of ideals and beliefs, and drawing a blueprint for national rejuvenation.

  This drama is a work of heart, hard work and emotion. It is a drama with rich historical value and distinctive theme of the times, which clearly and thoroughly presents the experience of the Chinese nation and the historical responsibility shouldered by the Communist Party of China (CPC) people. The innovation of the play shows the value of the creator’s intention. In the past, the works describing the agrarian revolutionary war focused on the layout of the battle, the shaping of the style of the generals and the rendering of the war scenes. While writing this aspect thoroughly, this drama also describes the economic construction of the base area at a considerable length, and the full exploration of the red economy has become the uniqueness of this drama. In the play, the value of historical stories lies not only in remembrance and encouragement, but also in warning and warning. By contrast, the creator tried hard to link history with reality, highlighting the power of ideals and beliefs. Fame and wealth and ideal belief are sharp opposites in the play, which brings deep thinking to the audience.

  The play is an ode to patriotism. It eulogized Fang Zhimin, the son of the Chinese nation and a loyal soldier of the Communist Party of China (CPC). In the struggle of "two hundred years", Fang Zhimin wrote "Lovely China" and the TV series "Lovely China" which described Fang Zhimin’s deeds, both of which are deeply engraved on the initial heart of history and are powerful responses to the call of duty.

  Artistic innovation sublimates classics.

  Wang Shoude (former director of the General Political and Art Bureau)

  The TV series "Lovely China" tells us, through a character like Fang Zhimin, where New China came from, how New China came from, where China is going today and how to get there.

  The combination of the vertical linear narrative and the horizontal local development of the play is natural and smooth, which shows that great efforts have been made from the screenwriter to the director. In addition, the main story of the protagonist and the profile description are also in place. The whole revolutionary history of Fang Zhimin is fully displayed, which gives the audience a deep understanding of the characters. At the same time, the drama does not confine its vision to Fang Zhimin alone, but enlarges this perspective and affirms Fang Zhimin’s contribution through others’ narration, which makes the story more real and helps the audience understand Fang Zhimin’s role in the China Revolution. The reason why the play can achieve the broadcast effect of "moistening things quietly" is that it has not followed the map in the existing materials, but has realized the combination of historical reproduction and classic sublimation. By watching The Lovely China, the audience not only learned about the revolutionary history at that time, but also learned about Fang Zhimin’s actions, and felt his emotions and spirit. Fang Zhimin’s firm quality is expressed in a soft way, which is touching. The whole drama has brought incisive aesthetic enjoyment and profound ideological implication. The theme of revolutionary history is not a simple educational material, but a work of art itself, which can strengthen the audience’s ideological and artistic beliefs. Lovely China combines its education and artistry very skillfully, and many revolutionary thoughts and spirits of Fang Zhimin are expressed in the play, which is thought-provoking.

  For an unforgettable memory.

  Wu Ziniu (director of the TV series "Lovely China")

  Today, we filmed the TV series "Lovely China" to relive the bravery and heroism of Fang Zhimin martyrs who died fighting for lofty beliefs. The whole shooting process is a process of learning from and paying tribute to heroes, which is solemn and moving. As a director or an ordinary audience, I deeply feel that it is with Qian Qian’s revolutionary martyrs like Fang Zhimin that China is today.

  "The enemy can only cut off our heads, but they can’t shake our faith." Fang Zhimin, a believer’s swan song 84 years ago, penetrated the historical time and space, and is still inspiring. On August 6th, 1935, when Fang Zhimin’s tall body fell heavily in Xiashawo, his great spirit stood permanently on the land of China. His writings in prison, including "Lovely China", "Poor" and other immortal masterpieces, show the height of a believer’s spiritual world and set an example for today’s young people in China.

  "If we lose the memory of history, our hearts will be lost in the dark." "Forgetting the past means betrayal!" These famous aphorisms should be engraved in the hearts of all China people. We should always remember and cherish the memory of great men, and learn from them personally, so as to contribute to the construction of a lovely China.

  The great man’s spirit shines forever.

  Wen Yanxia (one of the writers of the TV series "Lovely China")

  The TV series "Lovely China" ended successfully, and achieved a double harvest of ratings and word of mouth. As a member of the screenwriter team, my heart is full of gratitude and glory. Well-made film and television plays must be the perfect presentation of team wisdom, and the birth of the TV series "Lovely China" fully proves this point.

  "Lovely China" held many screenplay demonstration meetings, invited experts to take the pulse of the screenplay, and firmly grasped the front end of the screenplay creation. During the filming and production, the top directors, excellent actors and powerful post-production company were invited, thus ensuring the excellent quality of the play. During the creation, the screenwriter team designed various schemes based on in-depth interviews and extensive reading, and combed the life stories of Fang Zhimin martyrs. Finally, it decided to start from Fang Zhimin’s revolutionary stories in the four periods of national revolution, Soviet construction, anti-Japanese war in the north, and prison struggle, and on the basis of respecting major historical facts, use fictional little people to thread the needle and turn the originally loose historical events into "pushers" for plot development. In addition, through the plot line of revolutionary friendship between Mao Zedong and Fang Zhimin, we fully show the spiritual connection of interdependence and mutual growth between the revolutionary base areas in northeast Jiangxi and the Central Soviet Area, so that Fang Zhimin’s spiritual quality and the spirits of communist party people such as Jinggangshan spirit, Soviet area spirit and Long March spirit can shine each other and shine forever.

  Let the heroic spirit observe the present.

  Jungle (the actor of Fang Zhimin in the TV series "Lovely China")

  I am honored to participate in the TV series "Lovely China" and play the important role of Fang Zhimin. For an actor, it may be a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to play a revolutionary hero who is admired by countless people. I am really lucky.

  I was deeply impressed by two scenes that reflected Fang Zhimin’s inner world. One scene is a scene in which Fang Zhimin is arrested in the mountains. At that time, it was winter in Hengdian. I was lying barefoot on the ground, soaked to the skin, and the cold invaded my bones, and my willpower reached its limit. There is also a scene of the public trial meeting of Yuzhang Park. Fang Zhimin got off the prison car and walked to the public platform. I put my feet, which weighed ten pounds, in chains on my feet, and I was already sweating with pain after a few steps. Unlike me, Fang Zhimin only wore the shackles for a few hours. He did wear them for several months, and he had a serious lung disease. These two scenes made me realize how strong Fang Zhimin’s will is, and let me see what is the real communist party people and what is the power of faith.

  The appearance of "Lovely China" coincided with the time when we should learn about Fang Zhimin, that era and how many martyrs like Fang Zhimin shed their blood for the future of our motherland. Only in this way can we observe the present, inherit Fang Zhimin’s spirit of "patriotism, dedication, poverty and creativity" and live a meaningful life.

  Knock on the echo in the heart

  Yuan Xinwen (Director of Literature and Art Department of People’s Daily)

  The TV series "Lovely China" does not simply repeat the characterization techniques and historical biographical narrative methods of major revolutionary historical themes in the past, but uses new ideas, new contents and new forms to impress the audience and make people feel shocked from the depths of their hearts in spirit. Specifically, I think it has three characteristics: one is to reflect the glory of faith, the other is to explore the spiritual world, and the third is to show the charm of personality.

  The play closely revolves around the course of Fang Zhimin’s 16-year revolutionary career, pushing his firm ideals and beliefs, his belief in communism and his understanding of the cause of communism to a new height. Through the in-depth exploration of Fang Zhimin’s spiritual world, the play has found new discoveries and new presentations. Fang Zhimin is not only a pure communist party person, but also a person whose personality charm can impress, conquer and influence people. By highlighting the image of Fang Zhimin, I think we have grasped the "key" and the core of character construction. Directors and actors used a lot of details to describe the process of Fang Zhimin’s growth from an ordinary farmer to an important leader of our party’s revolution. His development and progress were described in detail, which is also an important foundation and premise for the characters to stand up.

  Lovely China is not only a vivid teaching material, but also a valuable artistic masterpiece. We have the responsibility and obligation to publicize such works well, so that more people can be infected by fine works of art, so that more young people can fall in love with our heroes, truly worship heroes and establish correct values and outlook on life by watching this play.

  Made a vivid interpretation of the "four self-confidences"

  Deng Kai (Executive Director of Literature and Art Department of Guangming Daily)

  The drama "Lovely China" makes the audience touch and feel a real, warm, comprehensive and clear Fang Zhimin, and from Fang Zhimin, we can see the perfect personality of communist party people beyond the traditional intellectuals in China. The traditional intellectuals in China, "if you are rich, you will help the world, and if you are poor, you will be immune to it", while Fang Zhimin, as a prisoner, is in a dangerous situation and still has a heart for the sky; Still not frustrated, work for the party in a special way in a special environment. With his qualifications, knowledge and ability, he could be an exquisite egoist, but he didn’t, but chose a narrow path that surprised ordinary people. Bernard Shaw said: "A rational person should change himself to adapt to the environment. Only those who are irrational will want to change the environment to adapt themselves. But history is created by the latter. " Fang Zhimin is such a person — — A man of firm faith, a sentient and righteous man with tears in his eyes.

  The beauty of this drama lies in the organic combination of grand narrative and individual description. Road self-confidence, theoretical self-confidence, institutional self-confidence and cultural self-confidence, how to understand these theoretical issues? This play gives a vivid interpretation through Fang Zhimin’s choice of revolutionary road and the reappearance of his fate.

  The value of this drama lies in its strong response to the phenomena of "historical nihilism", discrediting heroes and deconstructing sublimity with sincere expression based on real history, achieving "profound thinking, exquisite art and excellent production" and opening up a new realm of film and television creation with revolutionary historical themes.

  There is always a force that keeps us going.

  Xu Yi (2018 graduate student of Zhejiang University)

  In the TV series "Lovely China", we can see the struggle track of a generation of communist party people from Fang Zhimin’s magnificent life, their unyielding national integrity and firm revolutionary ideals, and the youth they have forged with their lives, their bloody initial heart and friendship.

  For the young people at that time, it was their initial intention and mission to seek the road of national rejuvenation, national independence and people’s happiness when the country was struggling.

  I often think about this question: From "two and a half rifles" to revolutionary armed forces of ten thousand people, what did Fang Zhimin rely on? After watching the whole TV series, I found the answer I wanted: relying on his lofty revolutionary belief and personality charm, relying on his strong sense of responsibility and patriotic feelings, and relying on the firm support of the broad masses of workers and peasants. The so-called faith is the determination to restore China’s awakening in the midst of gunfire and study for the rise of China. It is also the sincerity when writing "No one has died in life since ancient times, leaving a heart to shine." As young people in the new era, while revisiting history, we should bear in mind the entrustment and expectation of revolutionary martyrs to our generation.

  There is always a kind of power, which gradually deepens in the historical rings and inspires us to keep moving forward. In times of peace, as a new force to realize the Chinese dream, we should closely link our personal ideal pursuit with the country’s future and destiny, actively shoulder the historical mission of promoting the development of the motherland, national rejuvenation and social progress, and release the youthful dream and realize the Chinese dream in the practice of Socialism with Chinese characteristics.

  Inherit the legacy of Fang Zhimin martyrs.

  Zheng Pulong (First Secretary of the Poverty Alleviation Team in Mashan Village, Caoxi Town, yiyang county, Jiangxi Province)

  The TV series "Lovely China" triggered a watching craze in yiyang county, Fang Zhimin’s hometown. The local cadres and masses are familiar with Fang Zhimin’s revolutionary deeds, and when these deeds are put on the screen, they feel very cordial and excited. For me, as the story unfolds, my vivid memories and deep nostalgia for this revolutionary elder in my hometown are also involuntarily rippling in my mind — — Fang Zhimin devoted himself to the revolution and devoted his whole life to the cause of people’s liberation in China. His love for the motherland and affection for the people, his noble character and revolutionary demeanor once again deeply touched me. In the war years, revolutionary martyrs wrote loyalty with sacrifice and demonstrated their responsibility with dedication. Now, in a peaceful era, although there is no test of life and death, I still have to always remember my mission, be down-to-earth and strive for progress.

  As the first secretary of poverty alleviation in Fang Zhimin’s hometown, I want to follow the example of revolutionary martyrs, inherit the legacy of Fang Zhimin martyrs, remember the people’s yearning for a better life, and dedicate my fiery youth to the Party’s poverty alleviation cause. I want to keep in mind the warmth and coldness of the people in difficulty, help them solve problems sincerely, lead the people in my hometown to get rid of poverty and become rich wholeheartedly, and contribute to winning the battle against poverty. Those who walk a hundred miles are half-ninety, and the poverty alleviation work has entered the sprint stage of gnawing hard bones, attacking hard and pulling out villages, facing very arduous and arduous tasks. I will certainly spur myself with Fang Zhimin’s courageous spirit, and actively participate in the "last mile" of poverty alleviation with a never-ending mental state and indomitable fighting posture, so as to achieve the goal of getting rid of poverty and running towards a well-off society in the whole village as scheduled.


Who is the driving force behind the speculation of Chinese herbal medicines into "financial products"

In July, the trade of Chinese herbal medicines should have entered the off-season, but this year, the price has remained high since the beginning of the year.

  In addition to the natural climate and other factors, many people in the industry pointed out that the intervention of hot money is the main reason to promote the current round of high prices of Chinese herbal medicines. Lily li, Secretary-General of Chinese Herbal Pieces Branch of Sichuan Pharmaceutical Industry Association, said that generally speaking, the price increase of Chinese herbal medicines is cyclical, and the price increase of individual varieties is more common. But this year, Ophiopogon japonicus, Codonopsis pilosula and Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae, which are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, are on the rise, and Cordyceps sinensis, which has a high unit price, has also increased by 30% compared with the same period last year. According to his rough statistics, among more than 300 commonly used varieties of Chinese herbal medicines, 200 have different increases.

  "At present, it is obvious in the market that Chinese herbal medicines are driving up prices." Liu Xu, a special researcher of Tsinghua University National Institute of Strategic Studies, told the Chengdu Business Daily-Red Star journalist that relevant departments can investigate some malicious speculation and hoarding according to the price law and anti-monopoly law.

  "I haven’t seen this kind of increase in 40 years."

  More than 200 medicinal materials have increased by more than 50%, and some drug dealers have lost money to deliver.

  Under the influence of high temperature and rain, June and July are generally regarded as the off-season of Chinese herbal medicine trading in the industry. However, this year, the prices of various Chinese herbal medicines have remained high since the beginning of the year. "Commonly used large varieties of medicinal materials are on the rise, and local angelica has risen from one kilogram in 60 yuan to one kilogram in 200 yuan; One kilogram of codonopsis pilosula in 80 yuan has now risen to 220 yuan, and Shayuanzi has increased tenfold. " An old Chinese doctor in the Southwest Chinese Medicine Clinic lamented: "It’s not normal. I have never seen this kind of increase in Chinese medicine for 40 years."

  The business of the Chinese herbal medicine market has also been affected. In Qingping Chinese herbal medicine wholesale market, the price of Angelica sinensis has risen to 300 yuan per kilogram. Mr. Li of Qingping Market Medicinal Materials Company told Chengdu Business Daily-Red Star News reporter that since the price increase, the business has also become weak. According to Mr. Li’s estimation, the wholesale volume of angelica in the store has fallen by more than half.

  From the origin and storage base of Chinese herbal medicines, to the wholesale market, and then to the whole industrial chain of Chinese herbal medicines entering hospitals and clinics, the impact of rising prices has been felt, and even some pharmaceutical companies that signed procurement contracts at the beginning of the year need to deliver at a loss. The person in charge of the pharmaceutical industry of a Chinese herbal medicine factory engaged in export business introduced that the Chinese herbal medicine factory generally measures the scale of procurement and production through customer orders. At the beginning of the year, after the factory prepared the annual consumption of about 20 tons of angelica for customers according to the practice of previous years, I didn’t expect to catch up with the price increase of angelica. Now there is still a gap of 5% to 10% of angelica in the factory. In order to deliver on time, the factory considers buying raw materials such as angelica at a high price. "A better decoction piece factory can only make a little profit, and some factories have to deliver when they lose money."

  China association of traditional chinese medicine reported in June that in Bozhou, Anguo, Yulin and other major trading markets, more than 200 conventional varieties increased by more than 50% annually, 100 conventional varieties increased by more than 100% annually, and 25 commonly used bulk medicinal materials increased by more than 200% annually. The reporter checked the Chinese herbal medicine market of Chinese herbal medicine Tiandi. com and found that the prices of common Chinese herbal medicines such as Angelica sinensis, Bupleurum, Codonopsis pilosula, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Astragalus complanatus, Paeonia lactiflora, Atractylodes macrocephala and Forsythia were among the top gainers.

  On July 12th, lily li, Secretary-General of Chinese Herbal Pieces Branch of Sichuan Pharmaceutical Industry Association, also told reporters that generally speaking, wholesale channels (such as Chinese herbal medicine purchasing terminal and Chinese herbal pieces factory) are the first to feel the price increase of Chinese herbal medicines. "The most fierce rise is the unified angelica, which has probably increased by 260% so far."

  Who is the "initiator"

  People in the industry call the influx of hot money speculation, "like stock speculation."

  What is the reason for the price increase of Chinese herbal medicines? According to lily li, from the analysis of natural climate, reducing production is one of the reasons leading to the price increase. Affected by high temperature and other factors, the bolting rate of Angelica sinensis is high, and the leaves are long and the roots are not long, which affects the quality and yield of the effective parts of the roots. After the planting cost increases, growers switch to other Chinese herbal medicines, resulting in reduced production.

  A Chinese herbal medicine dealer in Min County, Gansu Province, the main producing area of Angelica sinensis, also told reporters that when the market was good, the yield of Angelica sinensis per mu was 400 kg/mu, compared with only a few tens of kg last year, because the bolting rate of Angelica sinensis seedlings was too high. "The cost of an acre of land has also risen from more than 2,000 to more than 10,000, and many growers don’t want to plant it."

  Lily li pointed out that in recent years, the output of Chinese herbal medicines has decreased, while the processing cost and manpower transportation cost of Chinese herbal pieces factory are increasing.

  In addition, many people in the industry pointed out that hot money is the main driver of the current round of high prices of Chinese herbal medicines. Lily li also introduced that, generally speaking, the price increase of Chinese herbal medicines is cyclical, and the price increase of individual varieties is more common. But this year, the consumption of Ophiopogon japonicus, Codonopsis pilosula, Astragalus membranaceus and Fritillaria cirrhosa is increasing, and Cordyceps sinensis, which has a high unit price, has also increased by 30% compared with the same period last year. According to rough statistics, among more than 300 commonly used varieties of Chinese herbal medicines, 200 have different increases.

  Jia Haibin, Deputy Secretary-General of the Special Committee for Breeding of Chinese Medicine Association, said in an interview that since the second half of 2020, the domestic prices of Chinese herbal medicines have started to enter a continuous rising channel, with a large increase and a long rising cycle, which is extremely rare in the history of Chinese herbal medicines with data records. Jia Haibin said that in the past three years, the prices of many varieties such as Shayuanzi, Longgu, Guanhuangbai and Ziziphus jujuba have doubled. "Whether it is the planting area or the weather, there are data to check, which are within the normal range. The price increase of Chinese herbal medicines in this round is not normal. "

  "It’s the funds that enter the market to stock up and speculate, which is as high as stock trading." A dealer who has been receiving goods in Gansu, Qinghai, Henan and other traditional Chinese medicines for many years revealed that, just like the speculation of Sanqi more than a decade ago, many capitals chose several traditional Chinese medicines with relatively concentrated production areas, such as Angelica sinensis, Codonopsis pilosula, Astragalus membranaceus, etc.: "The way of speculation is to give money without picking up the goods, but only to speculate among various frozen warehouses."

  According to the president of Yuzhou Pharmaceutical Chamber of Commerce, when he went to the country of origin to get medicine this year, he found many unfamiliar faces, many of whom were real estate bosses or coal bosses. After purchasing medicinal materials, they all hoarded them, and the lower they went, the higher they went. "In April this year, I went to Shanxi to purchase medicinal materials, and I happened to meet a coal boss who was also purchasing. He bought hundreds of tons of a variety of Bupleurum. "

  Bozhou, Anhui Province is the base with the largest storage capacity of Chinese herbal medicines in China. When the reporter randomly asked whether there were any remaining medicinal materials in several freezers in Bozhou on the grounds of wholesaler’s inventory, many cold storage staff said that there were no vacancies. "The cold storage is basically medicinal materials, and there are fewer warehouses, and the storage price has nearly doubled."

  "At present, it is obvious in the market that Chinese herbal medicines are driving up prices." After comprehensive analysis, Liu Xu thinks that apart from weather and other reasons, most of the reasons are that wholesalers are jointly hoarding — — Because the purchasing ability, storage ability and sales ability of a single wholesaler are limited, once a large wholesaler takes the lead in releasing inventory in multiple categories, the whole price can come down. However, the current situation is that Chinese herbal medicines have continued to rise and run at a high level since the beginning of the year. "Without collusion between wholesalers, it is difficult to achieve." To this end, Liu Xu has repeatedly said, "It is suggested to investigate whether there is hoarding speculation and conspiracy to price behind the rising prices of Chinese herbal medicines year after year."

  Industry moves to contain

  The Chinese Medicine Association called for the prohibition of price gouging and the launch of the "Chinese Medicine Production and Marketing Consortium Action"

  Major medical associations in China have also voiced their voices. Since June, the Professional Committee of Chinese Herbal Pieces of Jiangsu Pharmaceutical Industry Association, Guangdong Pharmaceutical Industry Association and Bozhou Chinese Herbal Pieces Industry Promotion Association have submitted the Report on Abnormal Market Price Growth of Chinese Herbal Medicines to china association of traditional chinese medicine successively, arguing that there are social hot money or dealers who jointly hoard Chinese herbal medicines, and the prices of Chinese herbal medicines have soared abnormally.

  On June 22nd, china association of traditional chinese medicine reported to state administration of traditional chinese medicine the "Investigation Report of china association of traditional chinese medicine on the Recent Abnormal Price Rise of Chinese Herbal Medicines", calling on relevant state departments to issue policies and take effective measures to maintain the market price stability of Chinese herbal medicines and ensure the healthy, orderly and high-quality development of the Chinese medicine industry.

  On July 8, china association of traditional chinese medicine once again issued a proposal to all units, saying that the market of Chinese herbal medicines has been fluctuating abnormally recently, and resolutely opposed and never participated in any improper or even illegal acts that disrupted the market order of Chinese herbal medicines, such as price gouging and manipulation, speculation and speculation.

  On July 11th, Shandong Internet Traditional Chinese Medicine (Materials) Trading Center issued the "Initiative on Promoting Direct Supply and Direct Sale of Chinese Herbal Medicines and Pieces and Curbing Unreasonable Price Increase", saying that some medicinal materials have been brought with strong financial attributes, and the healthy development of the industry has been seriously impacted. Behind this round of sustained price increase, the reasons are not only the imbalance between supply and demand of some varieties, the reduction of production due to weather, and the improvement of drug standards, but also the wanton speculation of hoarders, which further aggravates the imbalance between supply and demand. Shandong Internet Chinese Medicine (Materials) Trading Center decided to launch the "Chinese Medicine Production and Marketing Consortium Action" to ensure the direct supply of Chinese herbal medicines and pieces.

  The regulatory system of traditional Chinese medicine faces challenges

  Experts suggest public investigation.

  According to Cao Haibin, deputy secretary-general of the Special Committee of Breeding and Breeding of Chinese Medicine Association, this price increase is undoubtedly a challenge to the current Chinese medicine supervision system. The reasons for this round of soaring prices of Chinese herbal medicines are extremely complicated, and it is urgent to improve the top-level structure and reconstruct the industrial interest pattern.

  Liu Xu believes that relevant departments can investigate malicious speculation and hoarding according to the price law and anti-monopoly law. "If there is collusion, information exchange and collaboration between wholesalers of Chinese herbal medicines, it is equivalent to a monopoly agreement, and the anti-monopoly law should be applied to regulate it. If it is independent decision-making, you can also consider applying the price method. Because the price law applies to all acts of arrogance and hoarding, the two laws can be said to be complementary. "

  Liu Xu introduced that Chinese herbal medicines have not received enough attention because of their scattered origin and market and long-term free competition. However, this year’s rally has not only appeared in one area, but more than 100 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines have increased in price in Anhui, Gansu, Henan, Chongqing and even the whole country. "From the perspective of anti-monopoly law enforcement, even if one of the 100 Chinese herbal medicines is due to hoarding and price increase, it is also a punishment." Liu Xu said.

  Liu Xu pointed out that, generally speaking, the public concern or organization warning of law enforcement agencies will have a deterrent effect on all kinds of price manipulation in the market. However, in order to help the Chinese herbal medicine industry to restore normal market competition, it is necessary to open a case for investigation in a timely and decisive manner, severely punish monopolistic behavior and price violations according to law, and confiscate illegal income, so as to make an example for others. Only with stable drug prices and sufficient supply can growers, wholesalers, Chinese herbal medicine enterprises and medical enterprises in the industrial chain form reasonable expectations, and the Chinese herbal medicine industry can achieve long-term healthy development.

  A positive signal is that china association of traditional chinese medicine said recently that the Association is cooperating with the competent authorities to carry out an investigation on the price issue.


What did the 20-year war leave for Afghanistan?

  【 honk 】

  In 2021, it is the 20th anniversary of the "9.11" incident that shocked the world, and it is also the 20th anniversary of the Afghan war launched by the United States. As the longest war in American history, it made the United States pay a heavy material price and casualties, and finally forced the United States to start withdrawing troops from Afghanistan. On April 14, 2021, the Biden administration of the United States announced that it would withdraw all US troops stationed in Afghanistan by September 11. However, 20 years later, what has this war left for Afghanistan?

  Turbulent, divided and impoverished Afghanistan

  After the "9.11" incident, the United States quickly launched the war in Afghanistan, overthrew the Taliban regime and drove away Al Qaeda. In the following 20 years, the United States continued the war on terrorism in Afghanistan, promoted post-war reconstruction and carried out so-called democratic transformation. As a result, Afghanistan has established a so-called Western-style democratic republic, achieved low-speed economic growth, and established a national security force.

  However, 20 years later, Afghanistan is still a conflict and turbulent country. A strategic goal of the United States in launching the war in Afghanistan is to make Afghanistan no longer a breeding ground for terrorism, but this goal has not been achieved. Because although the Taliban has been overthrown as a regime, it has been reorganized since 2003. So far, it has developed into an anti-American and anti-government political and military organization with more than 80,000 members. In addition to the Taliban, various extremist organizations such as Al Qaeda and the Khorasan branch of the Islamic State are also very active in Afghanistan. According to the annual Global global peace index released in June 2019, Afghanistan has replaced Syria as the most insecure country in the world. In the past 20 years, the conflict has brought a serious humanitarian disaster to Afghanistan. As of 2019, more than 40,000 civilians have died in Afghanistan, more than 60,000 people have been injured, and about 11 million people have become refugees.

  Afghanistan remains a de facto divided country. The United States and the Afghan government it supports cannot effectively govern the whole country, and mainly control the central and western regions and the northern regions, as well as large and medium-sized cities and transportation trunk lines throughout the country. The Afghan government is also inseparable from the military protection of the United States and its western allies. In addition, it also faces difficulties such as low governance efficiency and rampant corruption. On the other hand, the Taliban has controlled many areas such as southeastern and southern Afghanistan, and implemented effective management in a solid jurisdiction. For example, the implementation of Islamic law, providing protection to local people and helping to resolve civil or commercial disputes, actually forms a political separation trend with the Afghan government.

  Afghanistan is also one of the least developed countries in the world. The industrial and agricultural foundation is weak, food is not self-sufficient, the economy is heavily dependent on foreign aid, finance is not self-reliant, and people’s lives are hard. 2019— In fiscal year 2020, Afghanistan’s GDP was about 18.89 billion US dollars, and its per capita GDP was only 586.6 US dollars. Although Afghanistan’s fiscal revenue has increased year by year, it has been unable to make ends meet for many years, and 60% of its budget comes from international aid. The unemployment rate has been rising for many years, reaching 40% in 2019. Some laborers can only earn about $60 a month, making it difficult to support their families.

  American factors that can not be ignored

  The war on terrorism and the failure of reconstruction in Afghanistan are the result of various factors. However, as a promoter and leader, the American factor cannot be ignored. The reason is:

  First, after the end of the Cold War, the United States became the only superpower in the world, and hegemonism and militarism expanded, which led to the "anti-terrorism" front being stretched too long. The war in Afghanistan is the first war fought by the United States since the 21st century. In just over two months, it overthrew the Taliban regime and drove away Al Qaeda. In 2003, the aspiring United States launched the second war, the Iraq war, which quickly overthrew Saddam Hussein’s regime and then began the so-called democratic transformation in Iraq. If the United States attacked Afghanistan, it won the sympathy of the international community, but its attack on Iraq was completely unilateral and did not get the authorization of the United Nations. At the same time, the United States carried out the "anti-terrorism" war and the so-called democratic transformation in two countries, which led to the long front and the shift of strategic center, greatly underestimating the determination and strength of the Taliban to make a comeback. It was after the Iraq war in 2003 that the Taliban began to recruit and organize a large number of new forces and rebuild their intelligence and action networks, thus achieving strategic reorganization.

  Second, in the past 20 years, American troops stationed in Afghanistan have frequently killed and killed innocent civilians, ignored local religious and cultural customs, and the incidents of humiliating corpses and abusing prisoners have been constantly exposed, which has aroused the anti-American sentiment of the Afghan people and prompted more people to join the anti-American anti-government team. For example, from January to April 2012, incidents in which American soldiers insulted the bodies of anti-American militants in Afghanistan were exposed one after another. In February, soldiers stationed in the US military base in Afghanistan burned a large number of religious books including the Koran. In March, an American soldier shot and killed 16 innocent Afghan civilians. This series of incidents has triggered large-scale anti-American protests in Afghanistan and neighboring countries, and the Taliban also took the opportunity to strengthen retaliatory attacks on US troops stationed in Afghanistan. Over the past 20 years, the American media have repeatedly disclosed various incidents of prisoner abuse by the US military and intelligence departments. In 2017, a prosecutor of the International Criminal Court decided to fully investigate possible war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by the United States.

  Third, the so-called western-style democracy may not be suitable for Afghanistan’s national conditions. Modern western democratic system can be generally established in European and American countries, which has gone through hundreds of years. During this period, it experienced the enlightenment of the Renaissance and the religious revolution, the direct promotion of the industrial revolution, and the repeated baptism of the bourgeois revolution. However, Afghanistan does not have the corresponding economic, class and ideological and cultural foundation. First of all, Afghanistan is one of the least developed countries in the world, with a low level of productivity. Secondly, since the 20th century, the capitalist economy has developed to a certain extent in Afghanistan, and a constitutional monarchy or a republican regime was established in the 1960s and 1970s. However, on the whole, the polarization between the rich and the poor in Afghanistan is wide, and about 40% of the population still lives below the poverty line. Thirdly, there are many tribes and ethnic groups in Afghanistan, and their identity is higher than that of the state, resulting in serious social and political polarization. Afghanistan is an Islamic country, and most people believe in Islam. It is difficult for many people, especially the middle and lower classes, to accept western democratic values. In such a country, Western-style democracy may aggravate the political and social division in Afghanistan, leading to national instability and ineffective governance.

  It can be seen that the war in Afghanistan, which lasted for nearly 20 years, left a turbulent, divided and poor Afghanistan, and the United States should deeply reflect on its wrong policies.

  (Author: Wang Feng, Unit: China Institute of African Studies, China Academy of Social Sciences)